“restore: to bring something back to an earlier and better condition” • The church established on the day of Pentecost was perfect. • Paul prophesied of a falling away. • How do we restore this church?
He found the book of the Law • Upon reading the law, the king tore his clothes, fearing the wrath of God. • His fear came “. . . because our fathers have not obeyed the words of this book, to do according to all that is written concerning us.” (2 Kings 22:13). • Realizing their apostasy from God’s will, “Josiah made a covenant before the Lord,
to follow the Lord and to keep His commandments and His testimonies and His statutes,
with all his heart and all his soul,. And all the people took a stand for the covenant.” ( 2 Kings 23:3).
BARTON WARREN STONE 1772-1844
He, with others signed The Last Will and Testament of the Springfield Presbytery in 1803, rejecting this form of government. “We will, that the people henceforth take the Bible as the only sure guide to heaven; and as many as are offended with other books, which stand in competition with it, may cast them into the fire if they choose . . .
. . . for it is better to enter into life having one book, than having many to be cast into hell.”
Thomas Campbell, newly arrived from Scotland in 1807, came to the same conclusion as the men in Kentucky, though he did not know of their work.
“Our desire”, he wrote, “therefore, for ourselves and our brethren would be, that rejecting human opinions and the inventions of men, as of any authority, or as having any place in the church of God,
we might forever cease from farther contentions about such things; returning to, and holding fast by, the original standard; taking the divine word alone for our rule:”Declaration and Address p. 4
A modern example of the Restoration Movement In 1950, the Lawrence Avenue Church of Christ in Nashville received an unusual request from a former Nigerian policeman.
C. A. O. Essien had received a correspondence course on the Bible from that church.
He stated he needed help, he had studied the course and from this and other study of the Bible, he believed he had restored the New Testament church in Nigeria.
He said they needed further teaching and help as he and five other preachers had already baptized 10,000 people and established a number of congregations.
Investigation proved Essien’s claim was correct and today the church flourishes in Nigeria because of this beginning work of restoration. .
The Seed of the Restoration Movement Were Firmly Planted in Scotland in the 18th Century.
Why Scotland? • A History of Religious Turmoil • Joined England in rejecting Catholic church. • John Knox introduced Calvinism • Founding of Church of Scotland, Presbyterian in government. • Division in church.
Work of “lay preachers” • Powerful leaders • Common Sense School of Philosophy and John Locke.Dissatisfaction with relationship of • Church of Scotland with Great Britain • Fierce Spirit of Independence
1695 Born in Fife, Scotland. His father was a minister of the church of Scotland. 1718 Licensed as Presbyterian minister. Opposed state churches 1725 Started an Independent church. About 100 went with him.
Church agreed to follow Glas as overseer. Observed Lord’s Supper monthly Practiced discipline found in Matthew 18.
Teachings of John Glas • Authority of Scriptures over all creeds. • Restoration if New Testament Christianity. • Church is a local congregation • Autonomy of local church • Faith demonstrated by obedience • Baptism is the sign of our covenant with Christ. Unites one with Christ and the Church,
“. . . the washing of our bodies. . . in baptism imparts purification from the defilement of sin. . . .” • Still accepted sprinkling as dedication of infants. • Lord’s Supper to be observed weekly. • Acts 2:42 is a pattern for worship.
1718 Born April 29, in Perth Scotland. His father, David, an indifferent Glasite by membership, introduced his son to Glas’ ideas at an early age. 1734 Enrolled in the University of Edinburgh, completing two terms While a student Sandeman became a member of a Glasite church. Devoted his full time to preaching. He also took part in the church where Glas was an elder.”
Published the most controversial and widely read of all his works was Letters on Theron and Aspasio (1757). • This work was a dialogue between Sandeman and James Hervey, a well-known Calvinist minister from Northamptonshire, concerning Hervey’s work Dialogues between Theron and Aspasio (1755) This dialogue demonstrated Sandeman’s theology
1760 Word reached Sandeman in London that his work Letters on Theron and Aspasio had caused quite a stir in the American colonies. • 1763 Sandeman was invited by several men in America to visit and teach. Since his wife had died, he accepted the invitation.
SANDEMAN’S VIEWS • His views were very similar to those of Glas. • He believed in strict discipline, similar to that of the church of Scotland. • Elders must be in every church. The Lord’s Supper could not be observed with elders present. • Faith is man accepting the redeeming work of God, not earning it. • Faith is an activity instead of mere mental assent.
*They called themselves the “church of Christ” but did not believe this was a specific name. *Opposed all religious creeds. *Refused the title, “reverend” and did not wear clerical clothing. *Foot washing and the holy kiss *The holy kiss was practiced at the end of the love feast. *Foot washing was only occasional.
In 1759, the estate was sold to Captain Robert Haldane of Plean. In 1791, his son, Robert Haldane, commissioned the design by the eminent architect Robert Adam, which is the basis of Airthrey Castle today.
1764 Robert born in London. • 1768 James born in Dundee, father died two weeks later. • 1778 Mother died, reared by maternal grandmother. Both served in the Royal Navy, James reaching rank of captain. • 1785 James marries Katherine and move to Airthery, near Stirling. Attended a Congregational church. • Robert had previously been influenced by Robert Bogue, brother-in-law of Greville Ewing.
1793 James leaves Navy. While living in London meets and is influenced by Willliam Innes, an Independent preacher. • 1796 Robert hears of great mission work in India and determines to go. Invites Bogue, Ewing and others to accompany him. • He financed this project by selling Airthrey Castle • However, government permission to go to India was denied.
The Haldanes determined to evangelize Great Britain and Europe James became a traveling evangelist while Robert worked with local churches. They also established preacher training schools.
Beliefs of the Haldanes • New Testament as pattern for worship • Apostolic church as model for all ages. • Congregational autonomy • Elders served to guide and teach church. • Each church had ministers and deacons • Weekly observance of Lord’s Supper
In 1808, the Haldanes rejected infant baptism and were immersed. • Practiced foot washing, more as a custom of hospitality. • Replaced Holy Kiss with more contemporary greetings. • Called self, “Church of Christ”
Relation to Haldenes with Glas/Sandeman • Haldanes influenced much by Glas. They either agreed or adopted much of Glas’ understandings. • Robert Haldane became a great admirer of Robert Sandeman.
Street Where Ewing Lived In Glasgow Greville Ewing • 1767-1841- Born In Edinburgh, Scotland • Supported Mission & Congregationalism In Scotland • Met And Worked With Haldane Brothers Until 1808 Teaching In their Schools, Preaching
Haldane Church Where Ewing PreachedInGlasgow Old Glasgow University Influence Of Greville Ewing • 1800-1839 – Minister Of Mother Church of Scottish Congregationalism, Glasgow, Scotland • Instructed At University of Glasgow • One Of His Students 1808,1809 Year Was Alexander Campbell