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AFRICA - Session 2 PowerPoint Presentation
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AFRICA - Session 2

AFRICA - Session 2

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AFRICA - Session 2

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  1. AFRICA - Session 2 Hunting for Water: Botswana

  2. BOTSWANA Tsodilo Hills Chobe National Park Okavango Delta Makgadikgadi Salt Pans BOTSWANA Capital: Gaborone

  3. Africa: Hunting for Treasures, Congo to the Cape Botswana 1. History 4. Our Experiences 2. Demographics 3. Geography & Geology

  4. Africa: Hunting for Treasures, Congo to the Cape Botswana 1. History 1. History

  5. BOTSWANA - HISTORY • Little written ancient history of Botswana • Khoe & San people - stone age nomadic foragers • Evidence of these neolithic peoples as far back as 17,000 BCE; archeological sites in Tsodilo Hills • San people are famous for using clicking sounds in their language: • http://www.ims.uni-stuttgart.de/phonetik/EGG/clicks.wav • Bushmen of Namibia and Botswana are thought to be descendants of the San people

  6. Civilizations Time Lines - Iron Age to the Present 17,000 BCE KHOE & SAN PEOPLE

  7. BOTSWANA - HISTORY 0-1000 AD – Bantu migration from north • in • Bantu lived here . . . • population explosion • large migration south bringing iron age & agricultural skills to eastern Botswana

  8. BOTSWANA - HISTORY 190 AD: earliest iron-age evidence- iron smelting furnace in the Tswapong hills near Palapye

  9. BOTSWANA - HISTORY

  10. Africa: Hunting for Treasures, Congo to the Cape Botswana 1. History 2. Demographics 2. Demographics 2. Demographics

  11. BOTSWANA-Demographics IMPACT OF HIV/AIDS ON LIFE EXPECTANCY IN AFRICA TRAGIC ! IN ONLY 15 YEARS!! • BUT, some hope - Botswana instituted: • a nation-wide Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission program and reduced HIV transmission from infected mothers to their children from about 40% to just 4%! • Vision 2016 campaign, which is aiming to achieve an AIDS-free Botswana by 2016!

  12. BOTSWANA-Demographics

  13. BOTSWANA-Demographics

  14. BOTSWANA-Demographics let’s summarize . . .

  15. Africa: Hunting for Treasures, Congo to the Cape Botswana 3. Geography & Geology 1. History 2. Demographics 3. Geography & Geology 3. Geography & Geology

  16. BOTSWANA - GEOGRAPHY - landlocked – no coastline - bordered by . . • size: 225,000 sq miles (~Texas) • average elevation: ~3000 ft. ZIMBABWE NAMIBIA SOUTH AFRICA

  17. BOTSWANA BOTSWANA - GEOGRAPHY • Kalahari Desert covers aprox. 70% of country Kalahari Desert Kalahari Basin

  18. BOTSWANA - GEOGRAPHY Okavanga Delta Kalahari Desert 70% of country

  19. BOTSWANA - GEOGRAPHY largest inland delta in the world Okavango Delta ‘the river that never finds the sea’

  20. BOTSWANA - GEOGRAPHY Okavango Delta WHERE does all this water come from? WHY does the water form this inland delta? WHY doesn’t it flow east or west to the ocean? HOW much water flows in this delta? WHAT animals thrive in this delta?

  21. BOTSWANA - GEOGRAPHY Okavango Delta WHERE does all this water come from?

  22. BOTSWANA - GEOGRAPHY WHERE does all this water come from?

  23. BOTSWANA - GEOGRAPHY WHERE does all this water come from? Water running down the mountains of Angola Huambo 1115 miles away Maun

  24. BOTSWANA - GEOGRAPHY WHERE does all this water come from? Water running down the mountains of Angola (feet) 6000 5000 4000 3000 Angola Namibia Botswana 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 (miles)

  25. BOTSWANA - GEOGRAPHY Okavango receives water from two different sources at two different times of the year: The first is the annual seasonal floodwaters from Angola Local seasonal rains over the Delta WHERE does all this water come from? • So, the Delta has… • low water: Nov. to Jan. • High water: Mar to Sept. 1a. Heavy rains in the Angola highlands in Dec 1b. Floods the Panhandle in Feb/Mar 1c. Floods spread out into the Delta and slowly (1km/day) makes it’s way arriving at Maun in June/July 2. Local rains during summer, Oct/May

  26. BOTSWANA - GEOLOGY WHERE does all this water come from? WHY does it flow to the Delta area? WHY doesn’t it flow east or west to the ocean? Water running down the mountains of Angola Surrounding mountains create a basin; water runs to the low point of the basin, the Okavango Delta 1115 miles away Kalahari Basin 1. Surrounding mountains block flow to the oceans in any direction

  27. BOTSWANA - GEOLOGY WHY doesn’t it flow east or west to the ocean? • Surrounding mountains block flow to the oceans in any direction • Almost all (95%) the water is lost to evaporation and transpiration along it’s journey • Geologic Faulting trending northeast to southwest at southeastern terminus of delta 1115 miles away Kalahari Basin National Geographic's Magazine Map

  28. BOTSWANA - GEOLOGY “Tectonic activity sometime in the past two million years created this young extension of the East African Rift System. Where the central fault block moved down, the Okavango River branched out but was damaged by an upward moving block a hundred miles downstream. Seasonal floods carry large amounts of sediment flowed into this depression, covering 8,500 square miles.” National Geographic's Magazine Map

  29. BOTSWANA - GEOLOGY extension of the East African Rift System “Tectonic activity sometime in the past two million years created this young. extension of the East African Rift System where the central fault block moved down, the Okavango River branched out but was damaged by an upward moving block a hundred miles downstream. Seasonal floods carry large amounts of sediment flowed into this depression, covering 8,500 square miles.” National Geographic's Magazine Map

  30. BOTSWANA - GEOLOGY central fault block moved down, the Okavango River branched out but was damaged by an upward moving block a hundred miles downstream “Tectonic activity sometime in the past two million years created this young. extension of the East African Rift System where the central fault block moved down, the Okavango River branched out but was damaged by an upward moving block a hundred miles downstream. Seasonal floods carry large amounts of sediment flowed into this depression, covering 8,500 square miles.” 100 miles National Geographic's Magazine Map

  31. BOTSWANA - GEOGRAPHY Okavango Delta HOW much water flows in this delta? • Depends on the seasons as mentioned before: • the dark blue to the left represents the dry season and water covers an area of about 6,000 sq. mi. • The light blue is the additional area covered by water during the wet season. The dark and light blue make up about 8,500 sq. mi. • Seasonal flooding of 350 billion cu.ft. of water with approx. 727,000 tons of sediment • (11.2miX11.2miX100ft)

  32. BOTSWANA - GEOGRAPHY WHAT animals thrive in this Delta? Okavango Delta • 400 bird species, 80 fish species (famous tigerfish) • 164 mammal species (Big Five (lion, leopard, cape buffalo, rhino, elephant), cheetah, giraffe, hippo, hyenas, zebra , various antelope& primates, and a world famous wild dog population • 157 reptile species including crocodiles. • (side note: Botswana has the largest herds of elephant in Africa) AN ECOLOGICAL PARADISE!

  33. Africa: Hunting for Treasures, Congo to the Cape Botswana 1. History 4. Our Experiences 2. Demographics 3. Geography & Geology 4. Our Experiences 4. Our Experiences

  34. BOTSWANA – OUR EXPERIENCE

  35. BOTSWANA – OUR EXPERIENCE Camp Moremi

  36. BOTSWANA – OUR EXPERIENCE Camp Moremi

  37. BOTSWANA – OUR EXPERIENCE Camp Moremi

  38. BOTSWANA – OUR EXPERIENCE

  39. BOTSWANA – OUR EXPERIENCE

  40. BOTSWANA – OUR EXPERIENCE

  41. BOTSWANA – OUR EXPERIENCE

  42. BOTSWANA – OUR EXPERIENCE

  43. BOTSWANA – OUR EXPERIENCE

  44. BOTSWANA – OUR EXPERIENCE

  45. BOTSWANA – OUR EXPERIENCE

  46. BOTSWANA – OUR EXPERIENCE

  47. BOTSWANA – OUR EXPERIENCE

  48. BOTSWANA – OUR EXPERIENCE

  49. BOTSWANA – OUR EXPERIENCE

  50. BOTSWANA – OUR EXPERIENCE Xugana Island Lodge