Research Title:The Negotiation of Meaning in the Talking Circle in the Tertiary ESL Context Presenter: Leonora L. Mingo, Ph.D.
KEY CONCEPTS • Negotiation of Meaning • Classroom Interaction • Language Learning Tasks
KEY CONCEPTS • Communication Strategies • Interpersonal Values • Group Work
INTRODUCTION • The discipline known as Second Language Acquisition (SLA) has gone a long way in terms of identifying what processes an individual has to undergo in acquiring one or more second or foreign languages. - Nunan (2000)
INTRODUCTION • SLA researchers are interested in both product (i.e., language used by the learners) and process(i.e., the mental process and environmental factors) that influence the acquisition process.
INTRODUCTION • A growing body of research has been conducted with regard to - learning processes, - types of classroom tasks, - kinds of classroom organizations that appear to facilitate SLA
INTRODUCTION • This implies that research in SLA considers the different factors in the classroom and finds out how these factors contribute to second language acquisition.
INTRODUCTION • In English as a Second Language (ESL) classroom, for example, the major concern of the second language (L2) teachers is how to generate rich and meaningful interactions that will aid SLA.
INTRODUCTION • The essence of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) is the engagement of learners in communication in order to allow them to develop their communicative competence. - Murcia (2006)
INTRODUCTION • In recent years, the use of group work in ESL classrooms has become a widespread practice.
INTRODUCTION • In the Philippine setting, Bautista (1996) and Genuino’s (2000) studies on group work offered a host of research possibilities that learner-learner interaction may offer, one of them is negotiation of meaning.
INTRODUCTION • For more than a decade now, group work has been widely used by the teachers in Notre Dame of Dadiangas University (NDDU) in General Santos City not only in the ESL classrooms, but also in the classrooms of the other disciplines.
INTRODUCTION • The idea of considering group work as one of the variables in the present study lies in the fact that:
INTRODUCTION • First, this type of classroom organization is commonly used by L2 teachers in the locale of the study, yet there has not been any empirical study that unravel the dynamics of group work
INTRODUCTION • Second,there is that inquisitiveness in finding out what processes students undertake when they are asked to accomplish a task.
INTRODUCTION • Within the goals of this study, it is deemed necessary that at the outset, the use of Talking Circle, a term adopted from Ernst (1994), is established to refer to a group of five students engaged in a language learning task in the classroom.
DEFINITION OF TERMS 1. Negotiation of Meaning • This study looks at negotiation of meaning beyond incomprehensibility of input.
DEFINITION OF TERMS • It extends its scope by looking at negotiation of meaning as a collaborative work which second language learners undertake to achieve mutual understanding.
DEFINITION OF TERMS • In this manner, this study takes note of: • the emerging patterns on how students negotiate • how they employ communication strategies while negotiating
DEFINITION OF TERMS • what nature of interaction takes place in the Talking Circle • how students’ interpersonal values may shape group interaction
DEFINITION OF TERMS 2. Talking Circle • Talking Circle (a.k.a. group work) pertains to a classroom event composed of five members who are engaged in a language learning task in an ESL classroom.
DEFINITION OF TERMS 3. ESL Context • This pertains to the classroom context of an English 1 course where the teacher and the students are part of the community.
DEFINITION OF TERMS 4. Communication Strategies • The way communication strategies are referred to in this paper is anchored on the idea that they are elements of interaction.
DEFINITION OF TERMS • Its working definition is taken from Corder (1981) which says that communication strategies are systematic techniques employed by a speaker to express his meaning when faced with some difficulty.
DEFINITION OF TERMS • Only those verbal and nonverbal strategies used by the speaker which have direct contribution to negotiation of meaning are taken into consideration.
DEFINITION OF TERMS 5. Interpersonal Values • They pertain to certain critical values involving the individual’s relationships to other people or the people’s relationships to him.
DEFINITION OF TERMS • The interpersonal values mentioned in this study were derived from the Survey of Interpersonal Values (SIV), a standardized instrument developed by Leonard V. Gordon, Ph.D. in 1960.
DEFINITION OF TERMS • In his instrument, he only highlighted the following interpersonal values which are: • Support • Conformity
DEFINITION OF TERMS • Recognition • Independence • Benevolence • Leadership
DEFINITION OF TERMS 6. Ethnographic Research • This is a qualitative research approach used to examine in depth the negotiation of meaning which involves personally attending, observing, and audio-video taping interactions.
DEFINITION OF TERMS • This ethnographic study employs other ways of gathering data i.e., by document analysis, survey of interpersonal values, focus group discussion, journal writing, and the use of playback sessions.
RESEARCH OBJECTIVES 1.Describe the emerging pattern on how students negotiate meaning in the Talking Circle
RESEARCH OBJECTIVES 2. Identify the communication strategies students employ as they engage in the negotiation of meaning
RESEARCH OBJECTIVES 3. Find out how the identified interpersonal values may have influenced students’ involvement in the Talking Circle
A SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM SHOWING THE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION THEORIES Linguistic/ Cognitive Focus Interactive Focus Interaction Hypothesis (Long, 1978) Monitor Model (Krashen, 1979) Discourse Model (Hatch, 1978) THE NEGOTIATION OF MEANING IN THE TALKING CIRCLE IN THE TERTIARY ESL CONTEXT PRAGMATICS AND SPEECH ACT THEORY SOCIOCULTURAL LEARNING THEORY (Vygotsky, 1978) (Austin, 1962; Searle, 1969)
A SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM SHOWING THE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
I N T H E T A L K I N G C I R C L E ETHNOGRAPHIC STUDY Second Language Acquisition Theories Socio- cultural Theory Pragmatics and Speech Act Theory A MODEL OF NEGO- TIATION OF MEANING IN ESL CONTEXTT Conformity E S L C O N T E X T N A T U R E O F I N T E R A C T I O N Recognition Support VERBAL STRATEGIES C O N T E X T NEGOTIATION OF MEANING E S L NONVERBAL STRATEGIES Independence Leadership C O N T E X T E S L Benevolence
METHODOLOGY • Research Method • Ethnographic research method was used in the study.
METHODOLOGY • In using ethnographic research method the primary concern is to analyze the data as they are, rather than to compare them to other data to see how similar they are. Therefore, generalizability of findings is not the concern of this study. -Van Lier (1988)
METHODOLOGY • The Participants The participants of the study were 45 first year Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) students enrolled in the English 1 (Communication Arts and Skills 1) course.
METHODOLOGY • The Setting • The study was conducted in Notre Dame of Dadiangas University, a Marist school in General Santos City.
METHODOLOGY • As a classroom-based research, the English 1 classroom located in Bro. Henry Ruiz Building, Room 203 served as the setting of the study.
METHODOLOGY • The Talking Circle A total of nine (9) Talking Circles having five members in each group was organized.
METHODOLOGY • The Language Learning Tasks This study had used two-way information gap tasks or the so-called required information gap tasks as well as jigsaw tasks.
METHODOLOGY Data Collection Phase I (Pre-Classroom Interaction) • Document Analysis • Survey of Interpersonal Values (SIV)
METHODOLOGY Phase II (Actual Classroom Interaction) • Audio-Video Taping • Students’ Journals
METHODOLOGY Phase III (Post Classroom Interaction) • Play back Sessions (PBSs) • Focus Group Discussions (FGDs)
METHODOLOGY • The transcript of the videotaped interaction was the main source of the data. The other sources such as students’ journals, playback session notes, and focus group discussion transcripts were used for triangulation purposes only.
METHODOLOGY • Micro-level Analysis • The transcripts were analyzed by episodes for the negotiation of meaning and communication strategies.