Europe Chapters 13 -16
MAP Landforms Water Mediterranean Sea Baltic Sea North Sea Rhine River Danube River Ebro River Elbe River Tiber River Thames River Aegean Sea Adriatic Sea Strait of Gibraltar English Channel Atlantic Ocean Black Sea Lake Geneva • NW Highlands • Central Uplands • Northern European Plain • Alps • Mt. Blanc- France- tallest Mountain in W. Europe • Carpathian Mtns • Pyrenees • Scandinavia Peninsula • Balkan Peninsula • Iberian Peninsula • Apennines • Baltic Plains
MAP Cities Region/Islands Scotland Wales Northern Ireland Sicily Crete Rhodes Malta Scandinavia • Lyon- France • Marseille- France • Barcelona – Spain • Belfast- Ireland • Munich- Germany • Milan- Italy • Liverpool – England • Edinburgh- Scotland
Countries • United Kingdom London • Ireland Dublin • France Paris • Monaco Monaco-Ville • Belgium Brussels • Netherlands Amsterdam • LuxembourgLuxembourg • Finland Helsinki • Norway Oslo • Sweden Stockholm • Denmark Copenhagen • Iceland Reykjavik • Estonia Tallinn • Latvia Riga • Lithuania Vilnius • Poland Warsaw • Germany Berlin • Czech Republic Prague • Slovakia Bratislava • Switzerland Bern • Liechtenstein Vaduz • Austria Vienna • Hungary Budapest
Countries • Spain Madrid • Portugal Lisbon • Italy Rome • San Marino San Marino • Vatican City Vatican City • Malta Valletta • Andorra Andorra • Monaco Monoca • Greece Athens • Slovenia Ljubljana • Croatia Zagreb • Bosnia & Herzegovina Sarajevo • Serbia (Yugoslavia) Belgrade • AlbaniaTirane • Macedonia Skopje • Bulgaria Sofia • Romania Bucharest • Moldova Chisinuau
History of Europe • 900-300 B.C.- warring tribes • 300 B.C.- A.D. 300 Roman Empire • 500 –1000- New Kingdoms (Fr., Eng., etc.) Medieval Europe • 1000-1500- European dominates world (Fr., Eng., Spain, Portugal, Dutch) • 1500-1900- Imperialism- overseas colonies (America) • World War I- Germany started it and lost (1914-1919) • many nations formed alliances (Central vs. Allied Powers)
History • World War II- only 21 years after WWI- Germany bitter (Hitler) Germany and Italy and Japan vs. Rest of world (1939-1945) -Germany (Hitler) started it and LOST- But very close to ruling world • Cold War- Post WW II- U.S.A. vs. Soviet Union (1949-1991) -NATO forms (U.S. and U.K.) 1949 vs. Communist Warsaw Pact 1953 -1989- Berlin Wall comes down and in 1991 Soviet Union collapses ending the Cold War
Resources Forest/Agriculture • Finland and Sweden- known for timber • acid rain is hurting forests • Good Soil for agriculture • North- Grains • South – grapes, olives, and citrus fruits Minerals/ Energy- Dependent on imports • oil and natural gas in North Sea • Hydroelectricity in Norway and Switzerland • France uses tidal power • Iceland uses geothermal power
Population Changes 1800-1900- immigration to U.S. left because of wars, famine, religious conflicts Today- Europe has the lowest immigration rate • 1000- 1300- rapid growth • 1300- 1450- wars and plagues (Black Death 1347-1352- killed 1/3 of Europe) • 1600-1700- Industrial Revolution- rapid growth and technology
Language • English most widely spoken language • 90% of Europeans 15-24 years old speak a 2nd language • most people are multilingual
Religion Jews- Western Europe and Muslims in S.E. Europe • Roman Catholic- South Eur. and in Poland, France, Austria, Ireland • Protestant- Northern and Central Europe (U.K., Germany)
Economy • WW II hurt BIG TIME- many new nations form with many new currencies • In 1957 Western Europe formed the EU- European Union- 19 Current Members • 1998- 11 Nations adopted the Euro- or common dollar- today it’s value is higher than the U.S. dollar
Economy • Western Europe- is developed Eastern Europe- not so much • Taxes in Europe are very high, but pay for many social programs (doctors, health care, etc.) • Greece not doing so hot these days
Issues • Ethnic wars in Eastern Europe • Pollution • Crime • Traffic- roads old not made for cars in some countries • limited energy • Ethnic differences- Religious differences
United Kingdom • cap. London • (England, Scotland, Wales & N. Ireland) Island of Great Britain • Average Income $ 22, 800 • Literacy Rate- 99% • Govt. – Constitutional Monarchy – King & Queen useless- Parliament in control
United Kingdom • Climate – Marine – west-coast (N. Atlantic drift) • Economy – helped lead Industrial Revolution – 1800’s • One of most prosperous & populated countries in Eur. • Thames R.- very important
United Kingdom • Ag. – Little • Oil – in the North Sea • Hydroelectricity & coal • Problems with urban decay, pollution & traffic • First – RR & Subway – called the “tube” • Heathrow Airport London • Religion- majority – protestant
United Kingdom • Northern Ireland – a.k.a. Ulster cap. Belfast • Fighting between N. Protestants majority & catholic minority • Terrorist groups continue to fight why?? • Peace talks in 1998 – slowed killings
Ireland • cap. Dublin • $21,600 • Lit. Rate- 98% • a.k.a. Emerald Isle – green country side • Govt. – republic with a president • 1/3 people live in Dublin • Rocky, boggy, foggy, energy poor relies on imports
Ireland • Economy – mostly manufacturing - thriving – computer and electronics , Banking, trade • Under British rule until 1949 – majority – Catholic • Ancestry – Celts (Scots, Welsh, Irish) → Romans → Angles → Vikings → William the Conqueror (1066) • “the troubles” – Belfast • 1860’s bad potato famine → many emigrate to U.S.
Norway • cap. Oslo • GDP- $ 27, 700 • Lit. Rate- 100% • Northern most Eur. Country • “Land of the midnight sky” • Thousands of islands – Marine – west – coast climate (tundra)
Norway • Leading Europe Fishing nation • 1960 great whaling industry* - slowed in 1987 Why?? • Mountainous, have found Oil recently and not a member of the E.U.
Sweden • Stockholm • GDP- $22, 200 • Lit. Rate- 99% • largest Scandinavian country in area & population • One of the most prosperous & democratic nations in the world • Neutral Foreign policy – Not a member of NATO • great health care- 2/3 of pay check
Sweden • Thousands of lakes – mostly plains 4 major sources of wealth • Forestry • Farming • Mining (iron ore) • Manufacturing (technology)
Finland • cap. Helsinki • $22, 900 • Lit. Rate- 100% • 50,000 lakes left by glaciers • Thousands of islands & bogs • Forests cover 60% of land depression • Major exports – TV’s, cell phones, ice breakers, cruise ships
Lapland – Santa?? • Northern Finland, Sweden, Norway & Russia (arctic Circle) • Lapps or Sami – reindeer herders (elves??)
Iceland • cap. Reykjavik • ½ pop. live near capital • Northern most capital in the world - GOP $24, 800 • Lit. rate 99% • Fishing main industry • Made up of Lava rocks, volcanoes & glaciers • Energy – hydroelectricity • Geothermal power- underground geysers
Denmark • cap. Copenhagen • GOP $25,500 • Lit. Rate- 100% • - smallest Nordic country • Social welfare system – free medical care but high taxes • Jutland Peninsula – Baltic Sea • 60% of land used for farming • Dairy farming & hogs (Iowa??) • Good butter, cheese & ham (Wisconsin ???) • Very good machinery, furniture, medicine, electronics • Depends on fishing industry
Denmark • Greenland – cap. Nuuk • Self-governing province of Denmark (Puerto Rico to US) • 85% covered by ice cap – mostly uninhabitable • People are Eskimo (Inuit) • Fishing chief occupation
France • cap. Paris • Paris 1/5 of total population • $ 24,400 • Lit. Rate 99% • speak French • main religion- Roman Catholic 80% • founded 2000 years ago, on Seine River • Napoleon- famous leader in early 1800’s
France • Very influential in E.U. • Long relationship with U.S. • High unemployment rate • Paris center for educ., govt., communication, banking, business, tourism • French Riviera- great tourist beach • Tour de France (bike race), French Open (tennis tourney) • Louvre- most famous art museum- “Mona Lisa” • Metro- underground train system in Paris
France • Home to the Eiffel Tower in Paris- • Known for shopping, food, perfume, tourism- Paris- city of love • France influenced by minstrel- strong cool wind from Alps • -Use tidal power and nuclear power
Netherlands • cap. Amsterdam • The Hague is the seat of government • GDP $ 24,400 • Lit. Rate- 99% • means “low lands” - was once covered by wetlands and the North Sea but built dikes and walls to keep out water • windmills used to drain the land, now done by polders • Holland is also a name for the Netherlands • people called Dutch • large natural gas deposits- headquarters of worlds largest oil refinery
Netherlands • Rotterdam- major seaport • Known for flowers- tulips • Dutchthe official language • Most expensive social security system • Workers known as some of the most productive and skilled • Great Banking and tourism
Belgium • cap. Brussels • GDP- $ 25,300 • Lit. Rate- 98% • 2 language regions- North = Flemish South = French • Many different Dialects • 70% of population live in Northern Flemish region • main recourse is skilled and productive labor force- machinery and textiles • Belgian waffles and chocolates • good farming • Known for quality carpets, cut diamonds, fine chocolates • Depends on International trade • E.U. & NATO headquarters
Luxembourg • cap. Luxembourg • GDP $ 36,400- best in the world • Lit. Rate- 100% • close ties to Belgium • smaller than Rhode Island • Industrial and commercial power • World Banking Center • Home to many E.U. agencies
Germany History • - During 700’s a.d. Charlemagne united many German kingdoms • which later broke into hundreds of small states, each with its own ruler. • The German States became apart of a loose confederation called the Holy Roman Empire.
Germany History History • By 1300’s, about 100 northern German towns formed a trading group called the Hanseatic League. • They dominated trade in the Baltic Region • -King Louis II of Bavaria had the castle Neuschwanstein built in the mid-1800’s. It is a version of a German medieval castle.
Germany History History Northern and Southern German states united in 1871. From 1890 to 1914, Germany prospered and became a great industrial and military power. Their army and Navy were among the strongest in Europe. • Powers that strongly influenced the German States were the German state of Prussia, and the Habsburg Empire, which later became the Austro-Hungarian Empire. • Prussia led movement to become a single German country
Germany Pre WWI History World War I erupted partly because the balance was upset. Britain, France, Russia, and later the United States, joined forces against Germany. Germany was allied with the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire. World War I History • The rapid rise of power in Germany worried other countries, so, many European countries formed military alliances. • Alliance- agreement between countries to support one another against enemies. Countries in an alliance are called allies. • Balance of Power- exists when countries or alliances have such equal levels of strength, that war is prevented.
Germany Post World War I History World War II History Under Adolf Hitler, Germany rebuilt its military and allied with Italy and Japan. In 1939, Germany invaded Poland, sparking WWII. The U.S, Soviet Union, Britain, and other allies brought Germany down in 1945. About 50 million people lost their lives. Germany and much of Europe lay in ruins. • After WWI ended in 1918, Germany had to accept harsh peace terms imposed by the victors. • Germany’s economy collapsed in the 1920’s. Food Shortages, High inflation, and high unemployment rate, caused severe hardships. • Germany’s economic and political struggles helped bring the Nazi Party to power in 1933
Germany Cold War History Cold War History East Germany lagged, and in 1990, after the collapse of communism, East and West reunited. Today Germany has a democratic system Berlinis the capital • The Allied victors divided Germany • Communist governments ruled eastern Germany, as with other Eastern Europe countries • West Germany became a democracy and rapidly rebuilt with the U.S and soon became a global economic power
Germany Culture Culture Language is German. 1/3 of Germans are Roman Catholic and large numbers are Protestant. Many do not attend religious services. German food features pork, sausage, veal, and cheeses. Rich pastries are popular desserts. Mainz is where Johannes Guttenberg was born, the inventor of the movable type printing. • Country divided into 16 states or Länder, which vary in size and population. Bavaria in the south is the largest. • “Green Parties” are well established in German Gvt. They have helped pass laws to help Germany have some of the strictest environmental laws in the world.
Germany Economy Economy Almost half of Germany is available for farming, and it is very efficient, so, farmers make up 3 percent of the population. Grains, potatoes, and sugar beets are major crops. Nuclear power provided about 1/3 of Germany’s electricity. But that’s declining because the gvt decided to close all Nuke power plants. Germany imports almost all of its oil • Germany’s GDP is fourth largest in world. Behind U.S, Japan, and China. • Germany’s economy is diverse. Businesses manufacture machinery, automobiles, electronics, and medical equipment. Chemicals, steel and high tech computers are important. • Ruhr Valley, in western Germany, is a major industrial center. Industries there developed around huge coal deposits. Today it is almost a continuous belt of cities and industries
Germany Issues Issues More than two million people of Turkish decent live in Germany. Some are victims of persecution and discrimination. Only recently have laws provided them with full German citizenship. • Some Eastern Germany residents, or Ossis, feel that they are treated as second class citizens. they resent that westerners, or Wessis, have a higher standard of living.
Germany Berlin When Germany was split, so was Berlin. The communists built a large concrete wall around West Berlin to keep residents in East Berlin from fleeing to the west. In 1989, the Brandenburg Gate was open to traffic for the first time in 28 years. • Berlin was capital of state called Brandenburg. • Despite economic problems with the world wars, Berlin continued to prosper • Political Philosophers Karl Marx and Felix Mendelssohn were residents of Berlin.