Media Literacy & Learning:Making Connections for All Students Frank Baker Media educator Fbaker1346@aol.com Media Literacy Clearinghouse http://www.frankwbaker.com
Media Literacy & Learning:Making Connections for All Students Media savvy, but not media-literate
Kids & Media ( Kids age 6-14 ) 69% have TVs in their bedrooms 49% have videogames46% have VCRs 37% have DVD players 35% have cable or satellite TV24% have PC (personal computers)18% have Internet access "U.S. Multicultural Kids Study 2005."
Media Literacy & Learning:Making Connections for All Students “Our students are growing up in a world saturated with media messages…yet they(and their teachers) receive little or no training in the skills of analyzing or re-evaluating these messages, many of which make use of language, moving images, music, sound effects” Source: R. Hobbs, Journal Adult & Adolescent Literacy, February 2004
“While more young people have access to the Internet and other media than any generation in history, they do not necessarily possess the ethics, the intellectual skills, or the predisposition to critically analyze and evaluate their relationship with these technologies or the information they encounter. Good hand/eye co-ordination and the ability to multitask are not substitutes for critical thinking.”Dr. David Considine, media educator
Media literacy recommended: • American Assn of School Libraries • Cable in The Classroom • Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development • Natl Board of Prof Teaching Standards • National Council of Teachers of English • National Middle School Assn • And more…
Media Literacy & Learning:Making Connections for All Students What is media literacy?Take the next few minutes to draft your own, personal definition, after which we will share.
Media Literacy & Learning:Making Connections for All Students “Media literacy is concerned with helping students develop an informed and critical understanding of the nature of mass media, the techniques used by them, and the impact of these techniques. More specifically, it is education that aims to increase the students' understanding and enjoyment of how the media work, how they produce meaning, how they are organized, and how they construct reality. Media literacy also aims to provide students with the ability to create media products.” Media Literacy Resource Guide, Ministry of Education Ontario, 1997
What media literacy is: • Set of skills, knowledge, & abilities • Awareness of personal media habits • Understanding of how media works • Appreciation of media’s power/influence • Ability to discern; critically question/view • How meaning is created in media • Healthy skepticism • Access to media • Ability to produce & create media
What media literacy is not: • media bashing • “protection” against media • just about television • just TV production • how to use AV equipment • only teaching with media; it is teaching about the media Video: EL
Media Literacy: Ohio ENGLISH Communication: Oral & Visual StandardB. Explain a speaker’s point of view and use of persuasive techniques in presentations and visual media.
Media Literacy: Ohio ENGLISH Grade 6 B. Analyze the techniques used by speakers and media to influence an audience, and evaluate the effect this has on the credibility of a speaker or media message.
Media Literacy: Ohio ENGLISH Grade 8 2. Determine the credibility of the speaker (e.g., hidden agendas, slanted or biased material) and recognize fallacies of reasoning used in presentations and media messages
Media Literacy: Ohio Social Studies 9th Grade -identify sources of propaganda, describe the most common techniques, and explain how propaganda is used to influence behavior
Media Literacy: Ohio HEALTH Draft StandardsGrade 6ATODInstructional ObjectivesMotivators:Investigate how alcohol/tobacco company ads target young people
Media Literacy: Ohio Visual Art Benchmark C Grade 84. Identify examples of visual culture (e.g. advertising, political cartoons, product design, theme parks)and discuss how visual art is used to shape people's tastes, choices, values, lifestyles, buying habits and opinions.
Media Literacy: Ohio LIBRARY Benchmark A: Explain the intended effect of media communications and messages when delivered by various audiences & for various purposesBenchmark B: Examine a variety of elements and components used to create and construct media communications for various audiences and & various purposesBenchmark C: Critique and evaluate the intended impact of media communications and messages when delivered and received by society as a whole
Media literacy aims to: • help students become independent thinkers • teach critical inquiry, critical thinking and critical viewing • involve them in hands-on work, including the creation and production of media • engage students in meaningful, relevant issues ( i.e. world, community, citizenship) • have students working together as part of a team
Benefits of media literacy • Interdisciplinary and easy to integrate into key elements of existing/emerging curriculum • Inquiry-based and consistent with reflective teaching and critical thinking • Includes hands-on experiential learning and is consistent with learning styles research
Benefits of media literacy • Works well in teams and groups, fostering cooperative learning • Proven successful in appealing to at-risk students & in improving retention rates • Compatible with SCANS (Secretary’s Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills) and fosters employment opportunities
Benefits of media literacy • Connects the curriculum of the classroom to the curriculum of the living room
A Framework for studying media • Media agencies: who communicates & why • Media categories: what type of text (genres) • Media technologies: how it is produced? • Media languages: meanings • Media audiences: who receives it • Media representations: how is it presented
Media literacy: key concepts • All media are Constructed • Media use languages with their own set of rules • Media convey values & points-of-view • Audiences negotiate meaning • Media= power + profit Source: Center for Media Literacy
Key Concepts: Media Literacy 1. All media are constructed media construct versions of reality
Key Concepts: Media Literacy 2. Media use languages with their own set of rules Language of film Camera workLighting Editing SetsSound/musicCostumes Expressions
Key Concepts: Media Literacy 3. Media convey values & points-of-view
Key Concepts: Media Literacy 4. Audiences negotiate meaning (different people see the same messagedifferently)
Key Concepts: Media Literacy 5. Media= power + profit ABC (Disney)CBS/UPNCNN (AOL/Time Warner)FOX (News Corp) NBC (NBC/Universal) VIACOM
What is the purpose of TV? The purpose of television is….. to drive audience (eyeballs) to advertisers
Change this sentence This program is brought to you by the sponsor. You are brought to the sponsor by the program.
Critical inquiry: asking questions • Who created/paid for the message? (author) • Why was it produced? (purpose) • For whom? (target audience) • What techniques are used? • What lifestyles are promoted? • Who benefits? • Does it contain bias or stereotypes? • Who/what might be omitted and why?
A media literacy continuum • Photographs (Visual literacy) • Advertisements with embedded images • Moving images (TV and film)
Media literacy & Bloom’s Taxonomy Media LiteracySimilar Bloom’s Language Access Identify, recognize Analyze Understand, deconstruct Interpret Clarify, paraphrase, represent Produce Generate, design, construct
Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy COGNITIVE PROCESS DIMENSION • Remember • Understand • Apply • Analyze • Evaluate • Create
Bloom’s REMEMBER Recognize, Recall IN MEDIA LITERACY, STUDENTS NEED TO KNOW BOTH THE CORE CONCEPTS &CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS STUDENTS KNOW BIAS, PROPAGANDA, TECHNIQUES OF PERSUASION, etc.
Bloom’s UNDERSTAND • Construct meaning from….graphic communication • You students represent verbal information visually? TAKING PAGE FROM A STORY AND CREATING A MOVIE STORYBOARD OF THE SCENE
Bloom’s APPLY • Can students use information in another situation? TAKE MEDIA LITERACY KNOWLEDGE AND APPLY IT TO NEWS, ADS, WEBSITES,
Bloom’s ANALYZE Break it down into its parts and how they relate to one another Differentiating, Organizing, Attributing
Bloom’s EVALUATE • To make judgments based on criteria • Can students make and justify a decision or course of action? WHAT TECHNIQUES ARE USED TO PRODUCE THIS MEDIA MESSAGE?
Bloom’s CREATE • Can students generate new products, ideas or ways of viewing things? Generating, Planning, Producing STUDENTS CREATE MEDIA AFTER LEARNING HOW MEDIA OPERATE
ML Concepts~ Bloom’s • All media are constructed In what ways are media messages put together Who does the constructions and how Students create/produce their own media
ML Concepts~ Bloom’s • Media utilize unique languages with their own set of rules In what ways are media “languages” ? What rules apply to different media?
ML Concepts~ Bloom’s • Media convey values and points-of-view Understand how media communicate values What techniques do they use? How do media producers convey points of view?
ML Concepts~ Bloom’s • Audiences negotiate meaning (different people see the same media message differently) Apply knowledge to different situations