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Enquiry Question 3: Why did Wellington win the Battle of Waterloo? PowerPoint Presentation
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Enquiry Question 3: Why did Wellington win the Battle of Waterloo?

Enquiry Question 3: Why did Wellington win the Battle of Waterloo?

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Enquiry Question 3: Why did Wellington win the Battle of Waterloo?

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  1. Enquiry Question 3:Why did Wellington win the Battle of Waterloo? Infantry Cavalry A general (Wellington) How many types of soldiers can you see? Artillery

  2. What types of troops did Wellington command? We already know they came from a range of nations, but how did they fight? Your task is to match the description to the troops type. Artillery Infantry Light Infantry Cavalry

  3. Troop Type:................................... Troop Type:................................... Weapons: Tactics/Formations Weapons: Tactics/Formations Strengths Weaknesses Strengths Weaknesses Troop Type:................................... Troop Type:................................... Weapons: Tactics/Formations Weapons: Tactics/Formations Strengths Weaknesses Strengths Weaknesses

  4. Why was this shape so important in helping Wellington’s infantry survive the battle? A description of the French cavalry attacks on British Squares at Waterloo: Their first charge was magnificent... Not a shot was fired until they were within thrirty yards, when the word was given, [FIRE!], and our boys peppered away at them. The effect was magical. Through the smoke we could see helmets falling – [horsemen] starting from from their seats with convulsive springs as they received our musket balls, horses plunging and rearing in the agonies of fright and pain. (Macready, 30th Regiment of Foot)

  5. The situation on the 18th June, 1815 When Napoleon returned to France and became Emperor again, there were only two Allied armies to try and stop him – The British (commanded by Wellington) and the Prussians (commanded by Blucher). They were stationed in Belgium. Napoleon knew that if he wished to try and prevent a full scale invasion of France he needed to knock out these two armies one at a time before the Austrians and Russian armies arrived. In the days running up to Waterloo Napoleon fought and beat the Prussians at the Battle of Ligny. The French also fought the British in a small battle at Quatre Bras but had been held at bay. Both Allied armies were now retreating. It looked as though Napoleon could now crush each one in turn. What he didn’t realise was that the Prussians were retreating in such a way that they could send troops to help the British if they were attacked. By the 17th of June Wellington decided to make a stand just south of the villages of Mont St Jean and Waterloo. There was a long ridge behind which he spread his army to hide them from view and protect them from direct cannon fire. Only a small number of troops were visible on the forward slopes facing the French. Wellington also fortified a Chateau called Hougoumont and a farmhouse called La Haie Sainte. These were in front of the British lines and would serve to break up any French attack. Most importantly, Wellington wrote hurried letters to Blucher and the Prussian armies urging him to send troops to help. Wellington knew he would be hard pressed to hold out without them. The night before the battle, it rained heavily and the troops found little shelter under hedgerows or their blankets. They awoke to muddy fields and it was clear that it would take time to let the fields dry out before the battle began. The minds of Wellington and his soldiers must have been filled with questions. Were the French going to break through the British line? Would the mud help? Above all, as Wellington turned his telescope to the east, he must have wondered if the Prussians were going to arrive in time to help?

  6. When did Wellington come closest to defeat? “It has been a damned serious business... I have lost 30,000 men. It has been ... the nearest run thing you ever saw in your life.” • Tasks: • What do you think Wellington meant by this quote? • Using your timeline of events, plot the course of the battle to show how Wellington’s fortunes in the battle fluctuated from near defeat to victory.

  7. Victory Holding on Time Time Defeat

  8. 6 11 4 4 5 4 12 9 4 10 3 8 2

  9. Look at your graph. Can you find.... • Where did Wellington come closest to losing the battle why? • When did it become likely that Wellington was going to be able to win? • What was the most important reason for Wellington’s victory? If you can’t come up with your own reason, think about the following. The weather The British/Allied determination to hold out The Prussian arrival on the battlefield

  10. How far do should we accept Hofschroer’s view that Waterloo should be seen as a ‘German Victory? Why is it more convincing to see the victory as a combined effort?

  11. Blucher meets Wellington after the battle What might they be saying? Can you add speech bubbles?