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Fragments

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Fragments

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  1. Fragments

  2. What is a fragment? • A fragment is a group of words that is missing parts of a complete sentence. • Remember that any sentence, in order to be complete, must express a complete thought and must include both a subject and a verb.

  3. Sentence: There I was, in the middle of my morning shower, when it happened. Sentence followed by a fragment: There I was, in the middle of my morning shower. When it happened.

  4. How can you find a fragment? • Ask: Is there a subject in the word group? A verb? • Ask: Does the word group express a complete thought? • If the answer to any of these questions is “no,” then the word group is a fragment.

  5. Which of the following is a fragment? Emily was a little nervous about Monday. Her first day at her new job. A) Emily was a little nervous about Monday. B) Her first day at her new job. C) neither of the above D) both of the above

  6. Which of the following is a fragment? Emily was a little nervous about Monday. Her first day at her new job. ANSWER: A) Emily was a little nervous about Monday. B) Her first day at her new job. C) neither of the above D) both of the above

  7. Which of the following is a fragment? Because she wanted to be rested in the morning. Emily knew she had to go to sleep. A) Because she wanted to be rested in the morning. B) Emily knew she had to go to sleep. C) neither of the above D) both of the above

  8. Which of the following is a fragment? Because she wanted to be rested in the morning. Emily knew she had to go to sleep. ANSWER: A) Because she wanted to be rested in the morning. B) Emily knew she had to go to sleep. C) neither of the above D) both of the above

  9. Which of the following is a fragment? Soon she fell asleep. Feeling better about the next day already, she slept well. A) Soon she fell asleep. B) Feeling better about the next day already, she slept well. C) neither of the above D) both of the above

  10. Which of the following is a fragment? Soon she fell asleep. Feeling better about the next day already, she slept well. ANSWER: A) Soon she fell asleep. B) Feeling better about the next day already, she slept well. C) neither of the above D) both of the above

  11. How can you correct a fragment? There are two basic ways to fix a fragment: – Add what is missing (a subject, a verb, or both). – Attach the fragment to the sentence before or after it.

  12. Fragments that start with prepositions • What is a preposition? A preposition connects a noun, pronoun, or verb with other information about it. * Remember: While phrases that begin with prepositions usually contain a noun, this noun cannot be the subject of the sentence. Example: After the swim meet, I went out for dinner. In this sentence, I is the subject, not the swim meet.

  13. How do you correct fragments that start with prepositions? • Correct the fragment by joining it to the sentence before or after it. Sentence followed by a fragment: Some parents worry. About their children’s imaginary companions. Corrected sentence: Some parents worry about their children’s imaginary companions.

  14. How would you correct this fragment? After finishing my piano lesson one day. I took a little walk through Mr. Licarra’s forest.   A) After finishing my piano lesson one day, I took a little walk through Mr. Licarra’s forest.  B) After finishing my piano lesson. One day, I took a little walk through Mr. Licarra’s forest.  C) I took a little walk through Mr. Licarra’s forest. After finishing my piano lesson one day. D) no change

  15. How would you correct this fragment? After finishing my piano lesson one day. I took a little walk through Mr. Licarra’s forest.   ANSWER: A) After finishing my piano lesson one day, I took a little walk through Mr. Licarra’s forest.  B) After finishing my piano lesson. One day, I took a little walk through Mr. Licarra’s forest.  C) I took a little walk through Mr. Licarra’s forest. After finishing my piano lesson one day. D) no change

  16. Fragments that start with dependent words • What is a dependent word? A dependent word (also called a subordinating conjunction) is the first word in a dependent clause. * Remember: A dependent clause is not a sentence because it does not express a complete thought, even though it contains a subject and a verb. Example: Since I won the meet. I have not stopped smiling. Since I won has a subject (I) and a verb (won), but it doesn’t express a complete thought. (What happened since I won?)

  17. How do you correct fragments that start with a dependent word? • Connect a fragment that starts with a dependent word to the sentence before or after it. Sentence followed by a fragment: There I was, in the middle of my morning shower. When it happened. Corrected sentence: There I was, in the middle of my morning shower, when it happened.

  18. How would you correct this fragment? I hate when I can’t finish my shower. Because I suddenly get nothing but freezing cold water.   A) I hate when I can’t finish my shower because. I suddenly get nothing but freezing cold water. B) I hate when I can’t finish my shower because I suddenly get nothing. But freezing cold water.  C) I hate when I can’t finish my shower because I suddenly get nothing but freezing cold water.  D) no change

  19. How would you correct this fragment? I hate when I can’t finish my shower. Because I suddenly get nothing but freezing cold water.   ANSWER: A) I hate when I can’t finish my shower because. I suddenly get nothing but freezing cold water. B) I hate when I can’t finish my shower because I suddenly get nothing. But freezing cold water.  C) I hate when I can’t finish my shower because I suddenly get nothing but freezing cold water.  D) no change

  20. Fragments that start with –ing verb forms • What is an –ing verb form? An –ing verb form (also called a gerund) is the form of a verb that ends in –ing: walking, writing, running. * Remember: Unless it comes with a helping verb (like was), an –ing verb form cannot be a complete verb in a sentence. It can, however, be the subject of a sentence. Example: Walking is good exercise.

  21. How do you correct fragments that start with –ing verb forms? • Correct a fragment that starts with an –ing verb form either by adding the missing elements of the sentence (such as a subject and a helping verb) or by connecting it to the previous or next sentence. Sentence followed by a fragment: I was humming to myself. Walking down the road. Corrected sentences: I was humming to myself. I was walking down the road. I was humming to myself, walking down the road.

  22. How would you correct this fragment? I realized that I had to rise above this difficulty. Emphasizing the things I do have, not the ones I don’t.   A) I realized that I had to rise above this difficulty. Emphasizing the things I do have. Not the ones I don’t.  B) I realized that I had to rise above this difficulty, emphasizing the things I do have, not the ones I don’t.  C) I realized that I had to rise about this difficulty, emphasizing. The things I do have, not the ones I don’t. D) no change

  23. How would you correct this fragment? I realized that I had to rise above this difficulty. Emphasizing the things I do have, not the ones I don’t.   ANSWER: A) I realized that I had to rise above this difficulty. Emphasizing the things I do have. Not the ones I don’t.  B) I realized that I had to rise above this difficulty, emphasizing the things I do have, not the ones I don’t.  C) I realized that I had to rise about this difficulty, emphasizing. The things I do have, not the ones I don’t. D) no change

  24. Fragments that start with to and a verb • What is to and a verb? To and a verb is also known as the infinitive form of a verb. * Remember: If a word group begins with to and a verb, it must contain another verb, or it is not a complete sentence. To and a verb can be the subject of a sentence. Example: To run a complete marathon was my goal.

  25. How do you correct fragments that start with to and a verb? • Correct a fragment that starts with to and a verb by joining it to the sentence before or after it, or by adding the missing sentence elements. Sentence followed by a fragment: It was my goal. To run a complete marathon. Corrected sentences: It was my goal to run a complete marathon. It was my goal. I wanted to run a complete marathon.

  26. How would you correct this fragment? It was important for me. To run smaller races first. A) It was important for me to run. Smaller races first. B) It was important. For me to run smaller races first. C) It was important for me to run smaller races first. D) no change

  27. How would you correct this fragment? It was important for me. To run smaller races first. ANSWER: A) It was important for me to run. Smaller races first. B) It was important. For me to run smaller races first. C) It was important for me to run smaller races first. D) no change

  28. Fragments that are examples or explanations This type of sentence fragment can be harder to recognize because there is no single word or kind of word to look for. Sometimes, fragments like this will start with words like especially, for example, like, or such as. Example: I wanted to paint my room a warm color. Like orange or red.

  29. How do you correct fragments that are examples or explanations? • Correct a fragment that is an example or explanation by adding the missing sentence elements or by joining it to the sentence before or after it. Sentence followed by a fragment: I wanted to paint my room a warm color. Like orange or red. Corrected sentences: I wanted to paint my room a warm color. I looked for paint that was orange or red. I wanted to paint my room a warm color like orange or red.

  30. How would you correct this fragment? It was not difficult. The choice between paint colors. A) It was not difficult, the choice. Between paint colors. B) It was not difficult. It is easy to make the choice between paint colors. C) It was not difficult, the choice between. Paint colors. D) no change

  31. How would you correct this fragment? It was not difficult. The choice between paint colors. ANSWER: A) It was not difficult, the choice. Between paint colors. B) It was not difficult. It is easy to make the choice between paint colors. C) It was not difficult, the choice between. Paint colors. D) no change

  32. More to try: How would you correct this fragment? Some people like to move frequently. Finding excitement in a new job in a new town. They enjoy the challenge. A) Some people like to move frequently. Finding excitement in a new job in a new town. They enjoy the challenge. B) Some people like to move frequently, finding excitement in a new job in a new town, they enjoy the challenge. C) Some people like to move frequently, finding excitement in a new job in a new town. They enjoy the challenge. D) no change

  33. How would you correct this fragment? Some people like to move frequently. Finding excitement in a new job in a new town. They enjoy the challenge. ANSWER: A) Some people like to move frequently. Finding excitement in a new job in a new town. They enjoy the challenge. B) Some people like to move frequently, finding excitement in a new job in a new town, they enjoy the challenge. C) Some people like to move frequently, finding excitement in a new job in a new town. They enjoy the challenge. D) no change

  34. How would you correct this fragment? Moving frequently is not easy. For everyone. A) Moving frequently is not easy for everyone. B) Moving frequently is not easy. For everyone. C) Moving frequently is. Not easy for everyone. D) no change

  35. How would you correct this fragment? Moving frequently is not easy. For everyone. ANSWER: A) Moving frequently is not easy for everyone. B) Moving frequently is not easy. For everyone. C) Moving frequently is. Not easy for everyone. D) no change

  36. How would you correct this fragment? My sister and I have very different views. About the ideal way to live. Fortunately, we do not have to choose the same kind of life. A) My sister and I have. Very different views about the ideal way to live. Fortunately, we do not have to choose the same kind of life. B) My sister and I have very different views about the ideal way to live. Fortunately, we do not have to choose the same kind of life. C) My sister and I have very different views. About the ideal way to live, fortunately, we do not have to choose the same kind of life. D) no change

  37. How would you correct this fragment? My sister and I have very different views. About the ideal way to live. Fortunately, we do not have to choose the same kind of life. ANSWER: A) My sister and I have. Very different views about the ideal way to live. Fortunately, we do not have to choose the same kind of life. B) My sister and I have very different views about the ideal way to live. Fortunately, we do not have to choose the same kind of life. C) My sister and I have very different views. About the ideal way to live, fortunately, we do not have to choose the same kind of life. D) no change