General InformationRiver Civilizations • The 1st civilizations arose near rivers. • The people of the Indus Valley farmed along the Indus River. • Subcontinent – a large landmass that is set apart from the rest of the continent by a physical feature • Indian Subcontinent – separated from Asia by the Hindu Kush and the Himalayas ~ includes: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Bhutan
Questions 1 and 2 • What physical feature was central to early civilizations? • Which river formed the basis of India’s first civilization?
Question 3 • What countries make up the Indian Subcontinent? • Identify at least 4
Physical Features • Features on the landscape that were formed by natural processes. Ex. mountains, rivers, lakes
Himalayas • The planet's tallest mountain range, including the highest, Mount Everest. Provides a natural border for India.
Indus and Ganges Rivers • Two of the most important geographic features in India, providing water sources and creating fertile land.
Question 4 • What natural barriers separate the Indian subcontinent from the rest of Asia?
Question 5 • The continental United States is about 2,400 miles wide. How does this length compare to the Indian subcontinent?
River Systems ~ Indus River part 1 envelope • Flows across the Northwestern part of the subcontinent • Snow and ice from the mountains melt and drain into the rivers, when the rivers flood it leaves behind silt • River water allowed for irrigation
India’s 1st Civilization part 2 envelope • Civilization grew around the Indus Valley • Developed in an area that is DRY most of the year
River Systems ~ Ganges River part 3 envelope • Flows across the Northern part of the subcontinent • Floods create a HUGE, fertile plain good for farming – this is the Ganges Plain • The rich Ganges Plain was the CENTER of another civilization
Question 6 • Why were river floods a welcome event for early Indus Valley people?
Question 7 • What fertile plain is located in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent?
Climate part 4 envelope • Monsoons-seasonal wind patterns that cause wet and dry seasons • Much of India has a Tropical climate • Winter- dry blow from the land • Summer-wet blow from the ocean
Question 8 • What impact do monsoons have on agriculture in India?
Beginning of Indus River Valley below envelope • The Indus River Valley Civilization started about 2500 B.C.E. • Along the south-western part of the Indus River. • The largest city was Mohenjo-Daro, in present day Pakistan. • Settlements stretched all along the river.
Impact of Geography 3 tab NATURAL BORDERS • Borders made of land or water • Mountains- Himalayas, Hindu Kush • Water- Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, and Indian Ocean • Prevented invasion and disease FARMING / IRRIGATION • Used the rivers and rain from the monsoons to wter crops TRAVEL • Location to rivers allowed for easy travel and trade
Timeline • 7000 B.C began growing crops around Indus River System • With a steady food supply population grew • 3000 B.C cities began to develop on the Indus Valley plain • 2500 B.C cities were the center of civilization • 1700 B.C civilization disappeared • 1921 ruins were discovered for Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
Question 9 • When did cities begin to develop in the Indus Valley?
Question 10 • When did the Indus Valley civilization flourish?
Technology 3 tab • Cities were well planned • Wide straight streets built in a grid a pattern • Built thick walls around the city • Built huge raised mound of earth and brick-remained above water during floods • Houses • had bathrooms and toilets • Trash chutes in many houses led to a bin in the streets • Waste water flowed into brick-lined sewage channels-1st sewage system • Math • Advanced system of weights and measurement based on units of 10
Question 11 • Why do archaeologist say that Indus Valley cities were well planned?
Farming 2 tab • Irrigation channels • the monsoons were not predictable • Irrigation channels and ditches brought water to the wheat and barley fields • Crops and animals • 1st farmers to grow cotton for cloth • Raised cattle, sheep, goats, and chickens • Surplus crops were stored in a GRANARY~ a special building to hold grain
Trade ~The economy depended greatly on trade3 tab • Items made and sold • Made jewelry from precious stones • Cotton cloth was woven and sold • Teak wood • Trade • Mesopotamia • Egypt • Advancement in technology led to carts and early boats that were used as the main method of trade and travel. • Seals and Weights • Traders used seals to identify their goods. • Seals were stamped on clay squares attached to their goods. • Accurate weights and measures increased trade.
Question 12 • What items were exported for trade?
Question 13 • What advancements aided trade?
Mohenjo-Daro 3 tab • Design • Laid out in 12 blocks • Blocks measured 1260 feet north to south • 750 feet east to west • A central block on the west was raised 20 to 40 feet above the other blocks • The raised block is believed to be the center for religion • Large buildings with verandas • Supersized granary • Two assembly halls • Houses had bathrooms and sanitation facilities
Government 3 tab • These items suggest that there was a STRONG central government: • Cities were well organized and show a high level of planning • Used a common system of weight and measurements • No royal statues or tombs makes is unlikely that a king ruled. • THERE IS NOT ENOUGH EVIDENCE TO DETERMINE THE TYPE OF GOVERNMENT THAT DID EXIST.
Religion 3 tab • Little is known • No temples and no clear signs of priests • The statues that have been found resemble the Gods in the Hinduism • Many Indus Valley carvings look like people meditating – an important practice in Hinduism
Writing We are still not sure how to read the Seals that have been found.
Social Structure- Caste System • Caste system with four main classes • Verna- a caste grouping • People were born into social classes that could not be changed.Brahmins (priests and the king) Kshatriyas (warriors and aristocrats - rulers) Vaishyas (cultivators, artisans, and merchants) Shudras (peasants and serfs)
Twice Born • Men in the TOP 3 varnas were “twice born” • 1st physical birth • 2nd spiritual birth – this happened after the individual read the Vedas and mastered writing using Sanskirt
Dalits • a caste grouping that was added later for people they others Castes are untouchables • These pole completed the ‘dirty’ jobs: cleaning the toilets, butchering animals, etc
Buildings and Structures • All houses had access to water and were about the same size • Houses had one or two stories • Most buildings were made of dry bricks • No large monuments or structures • Individual buildings for bathing and using the restroom (had an early "sanitation" system) • Citadels were used for defense
Religion • Hinduism 1700-1100 B.C.E. • Buddhism 365 B.C.E.
Gender Roles • Men worked within their designated caste social class • Women were valued because of their ability to produce offspring and nurse • When children were old enough, they adopted their parents' role