Pharmacy and Psychology Betty Chewning, PhD, FAPhA Professor, U of WI School of Pharmacy
The Learners:Pharmacy Graduate Students&Professional Students (PharmD)
Is Psychology Required?Professional Students: • Integrated in 1st semester course on Psycho-social Issues & Pharmacy Management • Patient (PT) perspective presented by PTs • Theory presented (Self-Efficacy, Self Regulation, HBM, Transtheoretical Model, etc.) • Integrated in last semester course on Patient Communication & Behaviors • Angry, anxious, depressed, overwhelmed PT
Is Psychology Required?Graduate Students: • Required core seminar: “Social Behavioral Theories in Pharmacy, Drug Use and Health Behavior” • Topics: Provider-PT relationship; communication; adherence; decision-making/concordance; social support & coping; self care/ seeking care/ self-management; provider adherence; • Theories: Self-Regulation; TPB; Transtheoretical Model; Health Belief Model; Social Cognitive Theory (Self-Efficacy); Social Marketing; etc.
Role/Rationale – PharmD. • Psychological principles underpin skills needed for effective encounters with PTs • Elicit PT concerns, agendas • Listen actively • Respond empathically • Educate PT responsively (across diversity) • ID & teach PT self monitoring • Medication management (Pt, MD, RPh)
Role/Rationale – Grad Students • Prepare theory based researchers • Some social science grad students take our course; Our students often take theirs • Need to use state of the art social science research methods • Psychology graduate statistics courses help in addition to the sociology courses they take
Role/Rationale Grad Students • Draw on scientific principles in applied pharmacy research & teaching: • PT perceptions • Roles (RPh & PT) • PT Models of health & how evaluate • PT decisions, medication use & Influences • Prescription meds, OTCs, CAMs • Multidisciplinary Communication & Marketing
Special Issues • We conduct translational research • We use findings to translate & promote best practice skills to pharmacy students • Example: Conversation analysis documents impact of different forms of asking patients- “Any questions?” decreases likelihood PT will ask a Q. “What questions do you have?” increases likelihood PT will ask a Q.
Opportunities and Barriers • Opportunities for psychologists to teach pharmacists: • Pharmacy embraces interdisciplinary faculty • PharmD. courses: communication, statistics, psycho-social patient perspectives • Grad courses: social behavioral theory, methods • Need for researchers writing NIH grants
Barriers • Barriers for psychologists to teach pharmacists: • Emphasis on translation to pharmacy applications (PT, RPh in community, clinic, & less so hospital) • Lack of familiarity with health care system • Lack of familiarity with RPh & PT roles • Lack of familiarity with community pharmacy
Implications for Psychology • Identify possibilities for joint academic programs in training • PharmD and PhD in psychology • Consider more interprofessional team taught coursework • Both at professional and graduate level • Consider the discipline of health psychology both within research and education • Require coursework across departments
Preparing for the Future • Health psychology, health communication, health system coursework useful • Strong methods background for research key • In research institutions it matters as much as coursework taken
Role for APA • Identify examples of interdisciplinary courses featuring psychologists • Identify courses by psychologists in other disciplines • Highlight research relevant to the targeted disciplines • Develop a SIG for those teaching/ conducting research in other targeted disciplines • Encourage this group to brainstorm how to promote