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Review of the Standards of Quality (SOQ)

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Review of the Standards of Quality (SOQ)

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  1. Review of the Standards of Quality (SOQ) Zachary Robbins Director of Policy Virginia Board of Education November 14, 2018

  2. Review of the Standards of Quality • Overview of Standards of Quality • Constitutional Authority • Board’s Role with the SOQ • History of the SOQ • Review Content of Each Standard • Review 2016 Board SOQ Recommendations • Discussion & Timeline

  3. The Standards of Quality • The Constitution of Virginia requires the Board of Education to prescribe standards of quality for the public schools of Virginia. • These Standards of Quality (SOQ) are found in the Code of Virginia at §§ 22.1-253.13:1 through 22.1-253.13:10 and encompass the requirements that must be met by all Virginia public schools and school divisions.

  4. The Standards of Quality Standard 1 – Instructional programs Standard 6 – Planning/Public Involvement Standard 2 – Personnel/Staffing ratios Standard 7 – School board policies Standard 3 – Accreditation/Assessments Standard 8 – Compliance Standard 4 – Graduation Requirements Standard 9 – VIP incentive program Standard 5 – Professional Development Standard 10 – SOL Innovation Committee

  5. Constitutional Authority Standards of quality; State and local support of public schools “Standards of quality for the several school divisions shall be determined and prescribed from time to time by the Board of Education, subject to revision only by the General Assembly.” Article VIII, § 2, Constitution of Virginia

  6. Constitutional Authority “The General Assembly shall determine the manner in which funds are to be provided for the cost of maintaining an educational program meeting the prescribed standards of quality, and shall provide for the apportionment of the cost of such program between the Commonwealth and the local units of government comprising such school divisions.” Article VIII, § 2, Constitution of Virginia

  7. Board’s Role with the SOQ Section 22.1-18.01 of the Code states: • To ensure the integrity of the standards of quality, the Board of Education shall, in odd-numbered years, exercise its constitutional authority to determine and prescribe the standards, subject to revision only by the General Assembly, by reviewing the standards and either (i) proposing amendments to the standards or (ii) making a determination that no changes are necessary. • If the Board proposes changes to the standards of quality, the budget estimates that are required to be reported pursuant to § 2.2-1504 shall take into consideration the Board's proposed standards of quality.

  8. History of the Standards of Quality • 1971 – New constitution effective • 1971 – Board adopts first SOQ • 1972 – General Assembly revises and adopts SOQ as uncodified law • 1973 – Attorney General issues opinion clarifying constitutional SOQ procedures • 1984 – SOQ codified into the Code of Virginia • 2002 – Biennial SOQ requirement established

  9. 1973 Attorney General Opinion Clarified process of developing and funding SOQ: • Board of Education determines the Standards • General Assembly may revise the Standards • General Assembly must apportion costs between the state and localities. The legislature should consider: • Current educational needs and practices • Actual costs of education • Local ability to pay; fair and equitable share of costs among localities

  10. Standard 1: Instructional programs supporting the Standards of Learning Preamble: “The General Assembly and the Board of Education believe that the fundamental goal of the public schools of the Commonwealth must be to enable each student to develop the skills that are necessary for success in school, preparation for life, and reaching their full potential.”

  11. Standard 1: Instructional programs supporting the Standards of Learning “the quality of education is dependent upon the provision of (i) the appropriate working environment, benefits, and salaries necessary to ensure the availability of high-quality instructional personnel; (ii) the appropriate learning environment designed to promote student achievement; (iii) quality instruction that enables each student to become a productive and educated citizen of Virginia and the United States of America; and (iv) the adequate commitment of other resources.”

  12. Standard 1: Instructional programs supporting the Standards of Learning • Directs the Board to establish learning objectives known as the Standards of Learning • Directs local school boards to provide instruction that is aligned to the Standards of Learning • Requires local school boards to provide a program of student services to aid with educational, social, and career development

  13. Standard 1: Instructional programs supporting the Standards of Learning • Requires school divisions to implement programs addressing the needs of individual students: • Prevention, intervention and remediation programs to at-risk students • Early identification and intervention services for students with reading and mathematics deficiencies • Early identification and appropriate instruction for students with disabilities, English learners, and gifted students

  14. Standard 1: Instructional programs supporting the Standards of Learning • Requires parents and students to be notified of opportunities such as career and technical programs, dual enrollment, advanced placement, Governor’s School programs

  15. Standard 2: Instructional, administrative, and support personnel • Establishes minimum staff-to-student ratios for teachers, principals, assistant principals, librarians, counselors • These ratios are used to fund the state share of these positions • Provides that school boards determine appropriate support staffing • Support staff includes both administrative and student support positions, and does not differentiate among these positions. Examples include: school nurses, psychologists and social workers, central office administrative staff, administrative support, maintenance, and transportation • State share of funding for these positions is based upon statewide prevailing rates (artificially capped since 2009)

  16. Standard 2: Instructional, administrative, and support personnel • Requires additional staffing based on student needs: • Special education as provided in the Appropriation Act and in Board regulations • Prevention, intervention, and remediation services as provided in the Appropriation Act • 17 full time positions per 1,000 English learner students • Appropriation Act language waives several SOQ staffing requirements to provide flexibility

  17. Standard 3: Accreditation, other standards, assessments • Directs the Board to establish Standards of Accreditation • Requires school boards to maintain accredited schools • Provides actions to be taken for schools not meeting standards • Directs the Board to “prescribe assessment methods to determine the level of achievement of the Standards of Learning objectives…”

  18. Standard 4: Student achievement and graduation requirements • Directs local school boards to award diplomas to students that meet the graduation requirements prescribed by the Board of Education • Directs the Board of Education to include in its graduation requirements: • A Profile of a Virginia Graduate that identifies the knowledge and skills needed, giving consideration to the Five C’s • Completion of US/VA history, emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, use of an AED • Requires school divisions to notify parents of students with disabilities and English learners of right to education through age 21 and 22, respectively

  19. Standard 5: Quality of classroom instruction and educational leadership • Requires Board of Education, school boards, school division staff to participate in high-quality professional development • Requires Board to provide guidance on high-quality professional development for teachers, principals, division superintendents, and other school staff • Directs local school boards to provide a high-quality professional development program • Establishes a consistent system for the evaluation of teachers, principals, and superintendents

  20. Standard 6: Planning and Public Involvement • Requires comprehensive, unified long-range plans to be developed by the Board, local school boards, and individual schools. • Plans must be based on data collection, analysis, and evaluation and must address: • Strategies to improve student achievement, especially for at-risk students • The extent to which plan objectives are being achieved • Assessment of needs • Enrollment forecasts • Plans for integrating technology into instruction

  21. Standard 7: School board policies • Requires school boards to maintain and follow up-to-date policies addressing specified topics, including a student code of conduct • Policies must be reviewed and updated as needed at least every five years • Policies must be publicly available and posted to the school division’s website

  22. Standard 8: Compliance • Requires school boards to provide at a minimum the programs and services in the Standards of Quality with state and local funds • Requires school boards to annually report compliance with the SOQ to the Board • Directs the Board to report instances of noncompliance to the General Assembly • Authorizes the Board to seek school division compliance, including petitioning court to mandate or enforce compliance

  23. Standards 9 and 10 • Standard 9. Virginia Index of Performance incentive program • Directs the Board to establish the VIP program to recognize schools and school divisions for significant performance and achievements • Standard 10. Standards of Learning Innovation Committee • Establishes the committee to make recommendations on SOL assessments, growth measures, innovative practices

  24. The Board’s 2016 SOQ Recommendations The Board recommended the following staffing requirements: • Assistant Principal: • one full-time asst. principal for every 400 students K-12 • School Psychologist: • one full-time school psychologist for every 1,000 students • Principal: • one full-time principal in every elementary school • Social Worker: • one full-time social worker for every 1,000 students • School Counselor: • one school counselor for every 250 students K-12 • School Nurse: • one full-time school nurse for every 550 students Board of Education, October 27, 2016 meeting

  25. The Board’s 2016 SOQ Recommendations • Amend the Code to ensure that students and parents are made aware of CTE opportunities. [Adopted by General Assembly] • Provide additional resources to support professional development needs associated with the implementation of the Profile of a Virginia Graduate. • Shift the review of the SOQ from even to odd-numbered years to be more aligned with the legislative budget process. [Adopted by General Assembly] Board of Education, October 27, 2016 meeting

  26. The Board’s 2016 SOQ Recommendations • Propose an in-depth study be conducted to ensure the availability of data regarding the local deployment of SOQ positions. • Eliminate flexibility provisions in the Appropriation Act that waive or override staff to student ratios in the SOQ. • Eliminate the methodology in the Appropriation Act that artificially caps state-funded support positions at one support position for every 4.03 instructional positions. Board of Education, October 27, 2016 meeting

  27. Discussion • What areas of the SOQ could the Board amend to implement its current priorities? • Are there new standards needed to address the Board’s priorities?

  28. Timeline for 2019 SOQ Review