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Unit-6

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  1. UNIT Unit-6 • Teaching Aim • Reading I • Reading II • Extended Activities

  2. Teaching Aim Teaching Aim Unit 6 Jewelry 1.Cognitive Information (认知信息): Different Kinds of Jewelry; Diamond and Its Value 2. Language Focus (内容重点) — Key Words:I. diamond, apprentice, intuition, tension, split, joke, choosy, edge, irritate, malicious, fulfil, bachelor, communion, odd, infect, destine; II.crystal, cluster, polish, sparkle, crude, precious, invent, revolving, flaw, grind, high-intensity, beam, cleave, facet, respectively, absorb, gem, diamond-faced, drill — Phrases:I. be to do with, in particular, be cut out for, take one's time, joke about/with, in one's stead, in communion with, fall apart; II. be known as, be known to, take on

  3. Teaching Aim Teaching Aim Unit 6 Jewelry — Word Study: reveal, accumulate, fulfil, expect, refuse — Useful Structures: was/were to do sth. Non-restrictive Attributive Clause introduced by “as” be true of/for should have + V-ed for... purpose / for the purpose of... (speed or frequency) a minute — Grammar: The Use of Article 3. Communicative Skills (交际技能) — Expressions: Expressions of “Apologizing” — Reading: A Catalogue of Rings 4. Phonetic Review (语音复习): Plosives

  4. Reading I UNIT Reading I Unit 6 Jewelry • Pre-reading • Text • Background Information • New Words and Expressions • Exercises • Post-reading

  5. Pre-reading Pre-reading Unit 6 Jewelry • Pre-reading I • Pre-reading II

  6. Pre-reading I Pre-reading I Unit 6 Jewelry I. Brainstorming: Work with your partner and write out the words about jewelry.

  7. Pre-reading II Pre-reading II Unit 6 Jewelry II. Pairwork: Discuss the following questions with your partner. 1. What is the hardest substance found in nature ? 2. What do you know about diamonds ? 3. Why is a diamond so precious ? 4. Why do many people prefer to use diamonds for jewelry ? 5. In what ways can you estimate the value of a diamond?

  8. Text Text-1 Unit 6 Jewelry Diamond-cutter Ephraim 1 There was a man called Ephraim who lived in Johannesburg. His father was to do with diamonds, as had been his father. The family were immigrants. This is still true of all people from Johannesburg, a city a little over a century old. Ephraim was a middle son, not brilliant or stupid, not good or bad. He was nothing in particular. His brothers became diamond merchants(钻石商人), but Ephraim was not cut out for anything immediately obvious, and so at last he was apprenticed to an uncle to learn the trade of diamond-cutting.

  9. Text 2 To cut a diamond perfectly is an act like a samurai‘s sword-thrust(武士剑的插入), or a master archer’s centered arrow(弓箭手的中心剑). When an important diamond is shaped a man may spend a week, or even weeks, studying it, accumulating(积累) powers of attention, memory, intuition, till he has reached that moment when he finally knows that a tap, no more, at just that point of tension in the stone will split it exactly so. Text-2 Unit 6 Jewelry

  10. Text Text-3 Unit 6 Jewelry 3 While Ephraim learned to do this, he lived at home in a Johannesburg suburb(约翰内斯堡的郊区); and his brothers and sisters married and had families. He was the son who took his time about getting married, and about whom the family first joked, saying that he was choosy; and then they remained silent when others talked of him with that edge on their voices, irritated, a little malicious, even frightened, which is caused by those men and women who refuse to fulfil the ordinary purposes of nature. The kind ones said he was a good son, working nicely under his uncle Ben, and living respectably at home, and on Sunday nights playing poker with his bachelor friends. He was twenty-five, then thirty, thirty-five, forty. His father became old and died, and he lived alone in the family house. People stopped noticing him. Nothing was expected of him.

  11. Text Text-4 Unit 6 Jewelry 4 Then a senior person(一位资深的人) became ill, and Ephraim was asked to fly in his stead to Alexandria(亚历山大) for a special job. A certain rich merchant of Alexandria had purchased an uncut diamond as a present for his daughter, who was to be married shortly. He wished only the best for the diamond. Ephraim, revealed(expose) by this happening as one of the world's master diamond-cutters, flew to Egypt, spent some days in communion with the stone in a quiet room in the merchant's house, and then caused it to fall apart into three lovely pieces. These were for a ring and earrings.

  12. Text Text-5 Unit 6 Jewelry 5 Now he should have flown home again; but the merchant asked him to dinner. An odd chance that — unusual. Not many people got inside that rich closed world. But perhaps the merchant had become infected by the week of rising tension while Ephraim became one with the diamond in a quiet room. At dinner Ephraim met the girl for whom the jewels were destined.

  13. Background Information Background Information Unit 6 Jewelry 1. Jewelry ”Jewel” is a countable noun, meaning a valuable stone, such as a diamond, while “jewelry”(珠宝) is an uncountable noun, meaning small things that you wear for decoration, such as bracelets(手镯), rings, earrings(耳环,耳饰) or necklaces(项链) made of precious metals set with gems or imitation gems. “Jewellery” is British English spelling, and in American English it is spelt as “jewelry”. As it is uncountable, we need to use words such as “a piece of" or "a lot of" with it if the quantity is mentioned. e.g.a piece of jewelry She wears a lot of gold jewelry.

  14. Background Information Reading I1 Unit 6 Jewelry 2. Diamonds Diamond(金刚石,钻石) is a clear, very hard and valuable stone, used in jewelry and in industry, for example, a diamond engagement ring. It is the birthstone of April and anniversary gemstone for the 10th and 60th years of marriage. Diamond was discovered in 500 B.C. in India. The name "diamond" comes from the Greek word "adamas" which means unconquerable — suggesting the eternity of love. Since ancient Greece diamonds have been the traditional symbol of love.

  15. Background Information Reading I1 Unit 6 Jewelry The ancients believed they were hardened dew drops, splinters from the stars or crystallized lightening. A diamond, the hardest substance known to man, is a crystallized carbon which has unique powers of light reflection. Because it is composed of a single element, a diamond is the purest of all gemstones. Diamond is a colorless stone. Some other occasional colors are: blue, yellow, amber, red, green, pink.

  16. Background Information Reading I1 Unit 6 Jewelry 3. The value of a diamond, 4 C’s: Cut — Clarity — Color — Carat Weight Cut Cut is the factor that determines the brilliance of a diamond. A classic round brilliant cut diamond has 58 facets — 33 on the top, 24 on the bottom and the culet ( 1 point at the bottom — another tiny facet ). Each of the stone’s facets must be placed by the diamond-cutter in exact geometric relation to one another. Quality diamonds must be properly cut and not “spread”, which means that the proper proportions are compromised to make the stone weigh more.

  17. Background Information Reading I1 Unit 6 Jewelry Classic Shapes

  18. Background Information Reading I1 Unit 6 Jewelry Clarity The fewer the inclusions, the clearer, more brilliant and more expensive the diamond. “Flawless” diamond means that no inclusions can be seen under a 10× jeweler’s loupe(珠宝匠、钟表匠等套在眼窝上的小型放大镜). Flawless diamonds are extremely rare.

  19. Background Information Reading I1 Unit 6 Jewelry Color The more colorless the diamond, the more valuable it is. Though most diamonds may appear colorless to the eye, the majority contain slight traces of yellow or light brown. Depending on the stone’s size, a single increase in color grade can boost a value of a diamond by thousands per carat. A traditional engagement diamond is colorless or near colorless. In nature diamonds can also occur in shades of red, pink, blue, green and deep yellow. They are called “Fancy diamonds”. In the United States and around the world colorless diamonds are graded on an alphabetical scale, introduced by the Gemological Institute of America (GIA美国宝石学会). D, E and F color grade diamonds may be referred to as “colorless” or “rare white”, D color is the most expensive and very rare.

  20. Background Information Reading I1 Unit 6 Jewelry Carat (Weight) Standard measure of a diamond’s size is carat (ct) weight. Size alone is almost meaningless unless you consider cut, clarity and color. A large stone is not very valuable if it lacks brilliance, purity and high-grade color. For the reason that large stones are harder to find than small ones, size does increase the value of a good diamond. No two diamonds are exactly alike, and a reputable jeweler can help you weigh all of the factors — color, cut, clarity and carat weight.

  21. Background Information Reading I1 Unit 6 Jewelry 4. World production of natural diamonds World natural diamond production for 2003 has been estimated at a total of 144 million carats with a value of US $9.4 billion. About 20% of this volume are gems, which will be polished and set into diamond jewelry and 45% are near-gem qualities, which would have been graded as industrial 40 years ago but are now polished by the vast low-cost Indian cutting industry. The balance is of industrial quality. DeBeers is the largest diamond miner in the world. Its mines in Botswana, South Africa, Namibia and Tanzania produced 41% ( US $3.9 billion) by value or 31% by caratage (43.9 million carats) of the world’s 2003 production.

  22. Background Information Reading I1 Unit 6 Jewelry The company’s marketing arm, the Diamond Trading Company (DTC), sold 48% of world total production — a steep fall from the recent past when (in 2000) the company’s market share was about 60% and the 1970s and 1980s when it was 80%. In 2003, Canada’s Northwest Territories mines produced 11.2 million carats, 7.5% of the world total by weight, worth an estimated value of US $1.24 billion, which is over 12% of the world total by value, making Canada the third largest producer of diamonds in the world, behind Botswana and Russia, surpassing South Africa and Angola. A large proportion of the gem-quality diamond produced by both the mines in the NWT is in the range of high color and quality, and in sizes that are most in demand in the world’s leading consumer market, the USA.

  23. Background Information Reading I1 Unit 6 Jewelry Botswana was again the world’s number one diamond-producing country in 2003 terms of value (estimated at US $2.48 billion) and only marginally behind Australia in carats mined (30.4 million carats). South Africa contributed an estimated 12.4 million carats to the world’s total production, which represents about 11% by value (US $1.1 billion), 96% of which comes from mines owned by DeBeers. Namibia now recovers about half of its diamonds from mining the sea bed with the remainder being found on its beaches, which have been swept for alluvial diamonds since 1908. The stones are high in average value, though small in average size. Russia is the world’s number two producer of diamonds. All the mines are situated in the Western Yakuti (西伯利亚的雅库特地区), and are owned by the state company Alrosa. In Russia, half of the rough output is currently sold for polishing and half is exported.

  24. New Words and Expressions New Words and Expressions Unit 6 Jewelry • New words and Expressions • Notes • Language and Culture Focus

  25. New Words and Expressions New Words and Expressions Unit 6 Jewelry 1. Immigrant n. a person coming into a country from abroad to make his/her home there 移民 2. brillianta. very intelligent 极聪明的 3. merchant n. a person who buys and sells goods, esp., of a particular sort, in large amounts 商人 4. apprenticev. to make someone work with a skilled workman to learn from him 当学徒 5. Samurai n. a member of a military class of high social rank in Japan in former times(日本旧时的)武士

  26. New Words and Expressions New Words and Expressions1 Unit 6 Jewelry 6. thrustn. a forceful forward movement or push 刺戳 7. archer n. a person who shoots arrows 弓箭手 8. arrow n. a thin pointed stick designed to be shot from a bow 箭 9. accumulate v. to become greater in quantity over a period 积聚 10. intuitionn. power of understanding without reasoning 直觉

  27. New Words and Expressions New Words and Expressions1 Unit 6 Jewelry 11. tapn. a short light blow 轻敲 12.tensionn. 1) the amount of a force stretching something 张力 2) a feeling of worry 紧张 13. split (split, split) v. to (cause to) divide by a blow (使)裂开 14. choosy a. careful in choosing 挑剔的 15. edgen. bitterness, sharpness in voices 尖刻

  28. New Words and Expressions New Words and Expressions1 Unit 6 Jewelry 16. irritateda. angry or impatient 恼怒的 17. malicious a. intended to harm others 恶意的 18. fulfil v. to do or perform (a duty, etc.) 履行(责任) 19. respectably ad. in a decent and proper appearance 体面地 20. pokern. a card game usu. played for money 扑克牌游戏 21. bachelorn. an unmarried man 单身汉

  29. New Words and Expressions New Words and Expressions1 Unit 6 Jewelry 22. shortly ad. soon, in a little time 不久 23. reveal v. to show or allow to be seen 显示(出) 24. communionn. state of sharing or exchanging thoughts and feelings 交流 25. earringn. a piece of jewelry worn in or on the ear 耳环 26. odd a. unusual 不寻常的 27. infectv. to fill (sb’s mind or spirit) with feelings 感染 28. destined a. intended in advance or by fate 预定的;注定的

  30. New Words and Expressions New Words and Expressions1 Unit 6 Jewelry 1. be to do with to have a connection with 与……有关 (=have to do with) 2. be cut out for to have suitable abilities or qualities for or to do (a job of work, etc.) 有从事(某种工作)的才能 3. joke about (sth.)/with (sb.) to speak unseriously about (sth.) or with (sb.) for amusement 拿某事开玩笑,与某人开玩笑 4. in someone’s stead in someone’s place; instead of someone (正式)代替某人 5. in communion with in the state of sharing or exchanging thoughts and feelings with 与……思想感情交融 6. fall apart to break (into pieces) 分裂

  31. Notes Notes Unit 6 Jewelry 1. Johannesburg: the largest city in South Africa founded in 1886 after gold was discovered in the area. (约翰内斯堡) 2. as had been his father: just as Ephraim’s father’s father, that is, Ephraim’s grandfather, had worked with diamonds. 3. but Ephraim was not cut out for anything immediately obvious: At that time, it was not clear what particular job was suitable for Ephraim. 4. sword-thrust: a sudden, forceful push of sword. 5. master archer: a very good archer with a lot of skill.

  32. Notes New Words and Expressions1 Unit 6 Jewelry 6. centered arrow: the arrow that hits at the center (the inner ring) of the target. 7. take one’s time: not in a hurry. 8. refuse to fulfil the ordinary purposes of nature: refuse to get married and have children. 9. with that edge on their voices: talked with a sharp tone (of his unwillingness to get married soon). 10. Nothing was expected of him: His family members didn’t expect him to make any great achievements in his career.

  33. Notes New Words and Expressions1 Unit 6 Jewelry 11. Alexandria: a port in the north of Egypt. (亚历山大) 12 .... spent some days in communion with the stone:... spent some days studying the diamond closely and trying to figure out how to cut it; He was so absorbed in his job that he and the diamond seemed to communicate with each other. 13. rich closed world: the rich merchant’s house which few people had the chance to get in and know about. 14. infected by the week of rising tension: the anxiety of the merchant increased during the week while Ephraim was doing diamond cutting. 15. become one with the diamond: Ephraim was so absorbed in his diamond-cutting that he and the diamond seemed to have merged into one physical being.(合并成一个实体)

  34. Exercise ◇ Exercises Unit 6 Jewelry • Exercise I • Exercise II • Exercise III • Exercise IV • Exercise V • Exercise VI

  35. Exercise I ◇ Exercise I Unit 6 Jewelry I. Read the text carefully again and discuss the following questions. 1. What did Ephraim’s brothers do for a livelihood ? 2. What can be learned about the city of Johannesburg ? 3. What career arrangement was made for young Ephraim ? 4. Why is diamond-cutting compared to a samurai’s sword-thrust ? 5. What a life was Ephraim leading when he turned to be middle-aged ? 6. What did people think of Ephraim before he was recognized as one of the world’s master diamond-cutters ? 7. Why was Ephraim asked to fly to Alexandria for a special job ? 8. What was the uncut diamond bought for ? 9. Where did Ephraim stay when he cut the rich merchant’s diamond ? 10. Whom did Ephraim meet at the merchant’s dinner ?

  36. Exercise II ◇ Exercise II Unit 6 Jewelry II. Choose the best answer to complete the following sentences. c ( ) 1. The main idea of the story is that _______ . a. Ephraim was blamed for his slowness in diamond cutting b. Ephraim’s family was engaged in diamond-cutting for several generations c. once an insignificant man Ephraim turned out to be a master diamond-cutter d. Ephraim learned the craft of diamond-cutting since his late childhood

  37. Exercise II ◇ Exercise II Unit 6 Jewelry c ( ) 2. It can be learned from the story that ______. a. Ephraim had not cut any diamond single-handedly before cutting the rich merchant’s diamond b. the merchant had only one daughter and he loved her very much c. the merchant was very impressed while observing Ephraim’s way of working d. people living in the town of Johannesburg took great interest in Ephraim’s private life

  38. Exercise II ◇ Exercise II Unit 6 Jewelry ( ) 3. Paragraph 2 mainly discusses ______. a. the value of diamonds b. the act of diamond cutting c. the art of sword-thrust d. the shaping of diamonds ( ) 4. We can infer from the text that ______. a. all immigrants in Johannesburg are good in diamond-cutting b. Ephraim was talented in diamond-cutting as a child c. Ephraim was exceptional as a child d. Ephraim’s family trade was to do with diamonds b d

  39. Exercise II ◇ Exercise II Unit 6 Jewelry ( ) 5. Ephraim became a master diamond-cutter because ______. a. diamond-cutting was a popular trade in Johannesburg b. he was fond of cutting diamonds since childhood c. he remained single and devoted all his time to the trade of diamond-cutting d. the successful cutting of a rich merchant’s diamond made his skill known d

  40. Exercise III ◇ Exercise III Unit 6 Jewelry III. Give the English words or phrases according to the meanings provided. accumulate 1. ____________ to become greater in quantity over a period 2. ____________ very intelligent 3. ____________ very careful in choosing 4. ____________ intended to harm others 5. ____________ an unmarried man brilliant choosy malicious bachelor

  41. Exercise III ◇ Exercise III Unit 6 Jewelry 6. ______________ intended in advance or by fate 7. ______________ unusual 8. ______________ state of sharing or exchanging the same thoughts and feelings 9. ______________ the power of understanding or knowing something without reasoning 10. ______________ to perform (a duty ) destined odd communion intuition fulfil

  42. Exercise IV ◇ Exercise IV Unit 6 Jewelry IV. Put the following expressions from the text in the blanks to complete the sentences. Make changes where necessary. infect 1.The book may ____________you with a passion for mountain climbing. 2. Coming from a theatrical family, I _____________ for a career on the stage. 3. The situation is much more serious than you think, so please don’t _____________it. 4. We have got a lot to talk about, since her job is _____________my business. was destined joke about to do with

  43. Exercise IV ◇ Exercise IV Unit 6 Jewelry 5. The woman behind the bar __________________opening the fruit juice, as if trying to needle us. 6. We __________________have gone away last week, but I was ill. 7. While the chairman is away, another director will act __________________. 8. She was trying to be calm, but there was a distinct __________________. 9.Their marriage __________________when she found out her husband was having an affair with another woman. 10. Having lived in the village all his life, he __________________the life in a large city. takes her time were to in his stead edge to her voice fell apart won’t be cut out for

  44. Exercise V ◇ Exercise V Unit 6 Jewelry Ⅴ. Rewrite the following sentences and replace the underlined words with appropriate words or phrases from the text. 1. The President returned to work a little time after his operation. ________________________________________________ 2. It’s strange that she didn’t reply to our letters. ________________________________________________ 3. Jean’s particular about what she eats for breakfast. ________________________________________________ shortly It’s very odd choosy

  45. Exercise V ◇ Exercise V Unit 6 Jewelry 4. I can’t attend the meeting but I’ll send my assistant instead. _______________________________________________ 5. He is a painter who likes to be in the state of sharing with nature. _______________________________________________ 6. They will never see each other again by fate. _______________________________________________ in my stead in communion with be destined never to see each other again

  46. Exercise VI ◇ Exercise VI Unit 6 Jewelry VI. Word study: For each of the following clues, use the given prompts to produce sentences in the same way as shown in the model. 1. Prompt: his/letter/reveal (v.)/different/side/personality Model: His letters reveal a different side of his personality. a. her / biography / reveal (v.) / she / not / rich / as / everyone / think b. joke / can / very / reveal (a.) / what / someone / real / think c. he / still / not / reveal (v.) / what / he / feel / me Key: a. Her biography revealed that she was not as rich as everyone thought. b. A joke can be very revealing of what someone’s really thinking. c. He still did not reveal what he felt about me.

  47. Exercise VI ◇ Exercise VI Unit 6 Jewelry 2. Prompt: Dr. Johnson/gradual/ accumulate (v.)/impressive/collection/famous/ paintings Model: Dr. Johnson gradually accumulated an impressive collection of famous paintings. a. people / accumulate (v.) / more / wealth / they / tend / spend / great / proportion / incomes b. accumulate (n.) /sand / can / form / action / waves / coastal / beaches c. if / you / not / sort / paper / your / desk / regular / basis / they / just / keep on /accumulate (v.) Key: a. As people accumulate more wealth, they tend to spend a greater proportion of their incomes. b. Accumulations of sand can be formed by the action of waves on coastal beaches. c. If you don’t sort out the papers on your desk on a regular basis, they just keep on accumulating.

  48. Exercise VI ◇ Exercise VI Unit 6 Jewelry 3. Prompt: you/think/manager/will/able/ fulfill / promise/raise/salary ? Model: Do you think the manager will be able to fulfil (v.) his promise to raise our salary ? a. we / look for / specific / sort / person / this / woman / seem / fulfil (v.) / all / our / criteria b. lay off / he / not / fulfil (v.) / role / breadwinner / family c. due to / circumstance / beyond / control / fulfil (n.) / your / contract / will / delay / several week Key: a. We’re looking for a very specific sort of person and this woman seems to fulfil all of our criteria. b. Being laid off, he could not fulfil the role of the breadwinner for his family. c. Due to circumstances beyond our control, the fulfillment of your contract will be delayed by several weeks.

  49. Exercise VI ◇ Exercise VI Unit 6 Jewelry 4. Prompt: we/expect (v.)/lot/applicant/job/number/applicant/beyond/imagination Model: We were expecting a lot of applicants for the job, but the number of applicants is beyond our imagination. a. financial / performance / business / full / expect / improve b. consider/ problem / he / have / there be / little / expect (n.) / him / win / race c. you / expect (v.) / too / much / John / think / he / can / finish / job / Friday Key: a. The financial performance of the business is fully expected (= almost certain) to improve. b. Considering the problems he’s had, there can be little expectation of him winning the race. c. You expect too much of John to think he can finish this job by Friday.

  50. Exercise VI ◇ Exercise VI Unit 6 Jewelry 5. Prompt: he/ask/me/give/another/loan/I/refuse (v.) Model: He asked me to give him another loan, but I refused. a. I / absolute / refuse (v.) / take part / anything / that / illegal b. his / argument / base / refuse (n.) / protect / environment c. local / council / refuse (v.) him / plan / permission / build / extra / house Key: a. I absolutely refuse to take part in anything that’s illegal. b. His argument is based on the refusal to protect the environment. c. The local council refused him planning permission to build an extra house.