Cognitive Psychology Review Questions
Chapter 1: Introduction and Methods • What is cognitive psychology? Describe an example of a phenomena that would interest cognitive psychology researchers.
Chapter 1: Introduction and Methods • Be able to explain the major difference between introspection and behaviorism, and know the main points of each.
Chapter 1: Introduction and Methods • What are some of the major chronological events that marked the “Cognitive Revolution?”
Chapter 1: Introduction and Methods • Briefly describe the experimental method. Illustrate using an example from class.
Chapter 2: Cognitive Neuroscience • The fact that some people can have damaged Long Term Memory while retaining Short Term Memory and others can damage Short Term Memory while their Long Term Memory remains intact demonstrates… A. Single dissociation B. Prospagnosia C. Subtraction method D. Double dissociation E. Dichotic recognition
Chapter 2: Cognitive Neuroscience • Name 2 out of the 4 main lobes of the brain and their function.
Chapter 2: Cognitive Neuroscience • Name 2 instruments that are used in brain imaging. • How does Positron Emission Tomography collect brain images?
Chapter 2: Cognitive Neuroscience • What is the thick outer layer of the brain that is responsible for high level functioning called? A. Corpus callosum B. Thalamus C. Cerebral cortex D. Hippocampus E. Cerebellum
Chapter 2: Cognitive Neuroscience 1) List the processes used to measure mental processes and explain:
Chapter 2: Cognitive Neuroscience 1. The job of the left hemisphere includes: A) Visual skills B) Nonverbal perception C) Verbal processing D) Spatial Orientation
Chapter 2: Cognitive Neuroscience 2. Which is not a function of the Temporal Lobe? A) Touch B) Hearing C) Language D) Memory
Chapter 2: Cognitive Neuroscience 3. What is the Principle of Contralaterality?
Chapter 3: Perception • True or False: Perception is how we recognize, organize, synthesize, and give meaning to the sensations we receive from the environment.
Chapter 3: Perception • Explain the difference between top-down processing and bottom-up processing. • What is the difference between top-down and bottom-up processing?
Chapter 3: Perception 1. Viewers tend to see elements in ways that produce smooth continuation is the definition of which Gestalt Principle? a) proximity b) similarity c) continuity d) common region
Chapter 4: Attention • What is attention and what are two basic types of attention?
Chapter 4: Attention • What phenomenon is demonstrated when an individual takes longer to name a color with the name printed in an incompatible color? A. Stroop effect B. Broadbent’s filter model C. Treisman’s attenuation model D. Posner’s spotlight theory E. Donder’s mental chronometry
Chapter 4: Attention 2: Which of the following is TRUE for the automatic processes of attention? a) interferes with other mental activities (consumes resources) b) do not give rise to conscious awareness c) occur with interaction d) all of the above
Chapter 4: Attention • True or False - When completing a dichotic listening and shadowing task it was found that participants are good at shadowing the attended ear, or attended text, but were not able to extract meaning from the unattended ear or text.
Chapter 4: Attention 1. Explain the automaticity versus controlled processes dichotomy.
Chapter 4: Attention 2. True or False: According to Triesman, the two main levels of visual processing are preattentive and postattentive.
Chapter 4: Attention 3. What is (are) a consequence(s) of not attending? A. Inattentional Blindness B. Change Blindness C. Illusionary Conjunctions D. A &B E. All of the Above
Chapter 4: Attention 1.) The ability to pay attention to one message and ignore all other messages is called _______?
Chapter 4: Attention 2.) What happens with automatic processing? a.) it happens with out intention b.) it uses few cognitive resources c.) none of the above d.) all of the above
Chapter 4: Attention 3.) Consistent mapping is: a.) controlled processing b.) difficult in the beginning c.) easy in the beginning d.) always difficult
Chapter 5: Working Memory 6. Which is the correct series of events for Traditional Models of memory as depicted by Atkinson and Shiffrin? a. Focus of attention, active memory, long term memory b. central executive, phonological loop, visualspatial sketchpad c. stimulus, active memory, encoding, long term memory d. stimulus, sensory registers, short term memory, long term memory
Chapter 5: Working Memory 1.) Which of the following is not part of the memory process? a.) retrieval b.) encoding c.) storage d.) decoding
Chapter 5: Working Memory 1.) What are three aspects of memory systems?
Chapter 5: Working Memory 2.) Which of the following is not part of Atkinson & Shiffrin's Modal Model of memory? a.) working memory b.) short term memory c.) attention d.) long term memory
Chapter 5: Working Memory 2.) What are three components of the working memory model?
Chapter 5: Working Memory 3.) Which of the following is not a component of Baddeley's Working Memory Model? a.) phonological loop b.) visuospatial sketchpad c.) central executive d.) all are part of the model
Chapter 5: Working Memory 5. Which level of memory is the first "stop" in Cowan's Model of working memory? a. Focus of attention b. Active attention c. Long term memory d. Central executive
Chapter 6: Memory • Provide a brief definition of Implicit Memory, and two examples of this memory process.
Chapter 6: Memory • Long term memory is made up of implicit and explicit memories. What are these types of memories?
Chapter 6: Memory • What are three memory strategies?
Chapter 6: Memory • How can you improve you memory?
Chapter 7: Memory Errors • What is false memory? What commonly causes a false memory to occur? • What is false memory? How is it studied in the lab? Summarize the basic findings.
Chapter 7: Memory Errors • What are schemas? How do they affect attention and memory? Illustrate using an example we discussed in class.
Chapter 8: Categorization 3) What are three theoretical approaches to categorization?
Chapter 8: Categorization 3) Briefly describe semantic networks, spreading activation, and the fan effect.
Chapter 8: Categorization 3) What are the three levels in the vertical hierarchy of categories? Explain each level. 4) What is a prototype? How did Rosch think about basic level, superordinate, and subordinate categories? Illustrate with concrete examples.
Chapter 9: Visual Imagery 1. Experiencing a sensory impression in the absence of sensory input is ?????. a. visual imagery b. mental imagery c. spatial representation d. propositional representation
Chapter 9: Visual Imagery • What is the dual-coding theory?
Chapter 9: Visual Imagery 1. What kind of coding would be best used to answer this question: Do cats like yarn? A. Analogue Coding B. Symbolic Coding C. Perceptual Coding D. Sensorimotor Coding
Chapter 9: Visual Imagery 3. Imagery can be representations (in absence of current sensory data) of ________________________. A. seeing B. hearing C. smelling D. all of the above
Chapter 9: Visual Imagery True/False: The functional equivalence model explains the images work the same way memory does.
Chapter 9: Visual Imagery 2. Explain the difference between analogue and symbolic coding.
Chapter 9: Visual Imagery 2. Katie was asked to imagine that she was walking toward the mall. The task she was doing is called: a.) imagery task b.) spatial recognition task c.) mental walk task d.) perception task
Chapter 9: Visual Imagery 2.) Dual-coding theory involves two systems, one for verbal stimuli and one for non verbal stimuli. How do the two systems communicate? a.) Through verbal and visual representations b.) Through hand eye coordination c.) through multiple systems joining together d.) none of the above