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Irish 226: Irish Literature PowerPoint Presentation
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Irish 226: Irish Literature

Irish 226: Irish Literature

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Irish 226: Irish Literature

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  1. Irish 226: Irish Literature Introduction to Irish History John Rickard Bucknell University

  2. Irish Geography Ireland is an island located at the far Western edge of Europe in the Atlantic Ocean

  3. Map of Ireland Lying to the West of England, Ireland is composed of four provinces and 32 counties

  4. Northern Ireland While 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland comprise the independent Republic of Ireland, six northern counties are still part of the United Kingdom

  5. Population of the Republic of Ireland • Irish population = approximately 4 million • 25% are under the age of 30 • About 14% now new immigrants (as of the last 5-8 years) • Centuries of emigration (late 18th – 1970s) have resulted in an Irish population dispersed around the English-speaking world (the “Irish Diaspora”) • Status as a “new nation” has made the Irish very conscious of a distinctive identity

  6. Prehistoric Ireland Many prehistoric monuments, including ring forts, burial mounds, and dolmens such as this one in Sligo, are evidence of pre-Celtic history in Ireland

  7. Newgrange--A Prehistoric Passage Tomb

  8. First light at the winter solstice

  9. The Celts Historians speculate that the Celts may have arrived in Ireland as early as 400 B.C. The Celts brought Iron Age technology and European Celtic artistic styles (known as La Tène style) with them.

  10. The Tara Brooch

  11. Gold Boat, Early Iron Age

  12. Celtic Culture Much of what we know about the Celts is speculation based on slim historical evidence. Many historians, however, believe that women held unusually high status in Celtic culture.

  13. Celtic Myth and Folklore Fantastic heroic tales and myths from Irish Celtic culture were transcribed by Christian monks in the centuries following the apparently peaceful Christianization of Ireland (supposed to have been brought about by St. Patrick in 432 A.D.). Among the most famous human heroes were Finn MacCumhail and Cuchulain.

  14. TainboCualigne The Tain bo Cualigne, or Cattle Raid of Cooley, tells the story of Queen Medbh’s raid on Ulster. Seeking the Brown Bull of Cooley, she attacked while all the men of Ulster but one were incapacitated by labor pains. Cuchulain, who was exempt from this curse, defended Ulster against the “Men of Ireland.”

  15. Cuchulain and the Men of Ulster

  16. Cuchulain as Political Icon The Celtic myths retain a cultural potency in Ireland, where Cuchulain, for example, serves as a symbol of heroism and defiance for Nationalists and Loyalists.

  17. Loyalist Wall-Mural

  18. Cuchulain as Marketing Tool

  19. Celtic Christianity Celtic Christianity thrived in Ireland and produced artistic masterpieces such as the 8th century Book of Kells.

  20. The Armagh Chalice

  21. Viking Raids and Settlements,793-1014

  22. Norman Arrival and Settlement(Marriage of Aoife & Strongbow; romanticized version by Daniel Maclise, 1854)

  23. Clash of Cultures(Anglo-Norman vs. native Irish)

  24. Stereotypes of the Irish • Irish-speaking vs. English-speaking • Illiterate (an oral culture) vs. literate • Therefore, primitive vs. civilized • Tribal vs. national • Musical • dancing (performers) • musicians (harper) • Feckless (irresponsible, carefree, drunken) vs. practical, responsible, reliable.

  25. Turlough O’Neill submits to Sir Henry Sidney(circa 1567)

  26. The Protestant Ascendancy Plantations, war, emigration and Penal Laws helped to effect a gradual transfer of land from Catholic to Protestant hands between 1641 and 1703, as these maps show.

  27. English Woodcut of Irish Atrocities, 1798

  28. Death of Lord Edward Fitzgerald, 1798

  29. English caricature of Irish rebels

  30. Catholic Emancipation Daniel O’Connell organized a movement for Catholic emancipation that succeeded in 1829; he then began a movement to repeal the Act of Union, which was brought to a halt by famine in 1845.

  31. The Great Hunger An Gorta Mor, or the Great Hunger, began when the potato crop failed in 1845. For the next few years, a devastating famine followed, reducing the population drastically and changing Irish society forever.

  32. Emigration

  33. Charles Stewart Parnell Charles Stewart Parnell, the “uncrowned king of Ireland,” led the Irish parliamentary movement for Home Rule until he was stopped by scandal in 1890. He died soon after, in 1891.

  34. Easter 1916 The Easter Rising in 1916 declared an Irish Republic and led to harsh English reprisals, executions, and finally, a war of independence.

  35. Dublin after the Easter Rising (1916)

  36. War of Independence, 1918-1921

  37. Treaty and Partition, 1921-1922 Michael Collins

  38. Civil War, 1922-1923

  39. Northern Ireland and the “Troubles”