Iran – Iraq War - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Iran – Iraq War

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  1. Iran – Iraq War 1980 - 1988

  2. Beginnings… • Sept. 1980 Iraq invades Iran • Iraq bombed oil and military targets • Saddam Hussein believed Iran could be taken within days b/c of turmoil in the country

  3. Why was there turmoil inside Iran in 1980?

  4. Civil Disorder Follows the Iranian Revolution

  5. Iran Persian Shi’ite majority Why is this significant? Iraq Arab Shi’ite majority Sizable sunni population as well Kurds (More on these guys later) Ethnic religious make up

  6. Causes of the war • Border clashes in ’79 when Ayatollah Khomeini takes power • Iran encourages Shiites and Kurds in Iraq to rise up against Saddam • Iraq wanted Khuzestan province in Iran (oil) • Saddam had ambitions of controlling the region

  7. Oil routes threatened by mines 60% of oil used by the west passed through the strait of hormuz Danger of drawing in other Mideast nations Cold war implications The World threat

  8. Key Targets • Iraq’s initial blitz failed • Iranians rallied behind Ayatollah Khomeini • Khomeini told Iranians to drive out the infidels. “Human Wave” tactics – “Martyrs.” • Oil fields destroyed; Saddam stops Iranians by using chemical weapons. • 1million dead by the time the war was over

  9. Attacks on international shipping • US frigate was hit by an Iraqi missile (37 sailors killed) • 1987 Iran mined Persian gulf • US warships began mine sweeping and escorting oil tankers • 1987 naval confrontation between us and Iran • 1988 us shot down Iranian civilian airliner (280 killed)

  10. Taking sides • Arab nations – declare neutrality but support Iraq (Saudi Arabia and Kuwait lend Iraq billions) • Ussr – started out neutral but supported Iraq in the end • USA – sided w/ Iraq, us supplied Saddam with chemical and biological weapons

  11. Ceasefire • August 20, 1988 • Iran is losing – economy is crippled, oil exports falling, inflation, unemployment, damage to major cities • Iraqi troops withdraw from Iran • Both countries control Shatt al-Arab waterway • Both sides agree to ceasefire, just in time for Iraq to invade Kuwait • Khomeini dies a year later and is replaced by Ayatollah Khameini, Iran’s current religious leader