CITIES OF VESUVIUS HOW TO SCORE TOP MARKS IN THE CORE
Know the dot points • The Physical environment, physical features, resources • Plans and Streetscapes • the eruption • the economy: trade, commerce, industries, occupations • social structure; men, women, freedmen, slaves • local political life • everyday life: leisure activities, food and dining, clothing, health, baths, water supply and sanitation • public buildings – basilicas, temples, fora, theatres, palaestra, amphitheatres • private buildings – villas, houses, shops • influence of Greek and Egyptian cultures: art, architecture, religion • religion: temples, household gods, foreign cults, tombs. • changing methods and contributions of nineteenth and twentieth century archaeologists to our understanding of Pompeii and Herculaneum • changing interpretations: impact of new research and technologies • issues of conservation and reconstruction: Italian and international contributions and responsibilities; impact of tourism • ethical issues: study and display of human remains
THE SOURCE • Remember the 4 mark question will essentially be a describe question, which will ask you to use the source given. • You must INTEGRATE THE SOURCE AT LEAST ONCE PREFERABLY 2 OR 3 TIMES • If you have large writing exceed the lines by writing below and to the side.
TIME= 45 minutes • Question 1 a and b requires you to use a written text. Hopefully you would have read it in the reading time. • A & B should take no more than 2 minutes • C, worth 4 marks will be a describe question= 5-6 minutes • Question 2 will be EXPLAIN worth 8 marks=15 minutes • Question3 is the Discriminator worth 10 marks=20 minutes ( use margins, top and bottom and side if need be)
The 4 mark question • Study the Source and see if you can find 4 facts to talk about • It is viable to talk about what is not there, but don’t overdo it. • Remember ancient terms and concepts • Be specific
Via Sabiae was the steepest street running from NW to SE Pompeii was accessed by seven gates, five of which led to other towns.Streets were laid out on a grid, the main axial road( decumanii) crossed by minor roads ( cardini) creating blocks called insulae about 35x90 metres The area covered approximately 66 hectares, only 2/3 of which have been excavated Nola lay on the main NS road access. The Nola gate decreased in important with less need for defence The Sarno river gave Pompeii the role of sea port for the adjacent hinterland Streets were generally narrow, varying between 2.4,3.6 or 4.5 metres wide . At its widest the main street was 8.5 metres wide Nuceria , also on the NS road axis drew its wealth from the river plain and southern regions of Campania Stabiae was an important shipbuilding town No commercial, or residential zoning exists and land use was not exclusively urban The old City or “Aldstat”
The 8 mark questionSpecific knowledge, sources • Requires more detailed knowledge of archaeological and written sources beyond the given source • Possible Explainationscould be: economy, social structure, political life, leisure and entertainment, private buildings( villas housing and shops), art and architecture • You can briefly allude to problems of evidence
Explain the economic life • Opening sentence: “ The location of Pompeii as a port and central to the fertile Campanian hinterland and Italian penninsula ensured its vibrant and cosmopolitan economic activity in primary secondary and tertiary activity. The excavation of up to 600 shops indicates the scale of such economic activity ” • Give a brief description of major industries textiles, wine and oil, garum, bakeries and a couple of minor ones like perfume( recent excavation) and pottery ( Jaye Pont study) • With each industry be able to give at least one piece of specific supporting evidence eg The Bakery of Modestus where 81 loaves of bread were recovered. • If space allows mention market days, numismatical evidence and the shops • The wax tablets of CaeciliusJacundus records commercial transactions recording receipts for loans and rent is valuable supporting evidence
Importance of Leisure and Entertainment • Opening sentence would address the question eg “ Menssana in corporesano”; sound mind and a sound body illustrates the Roman enthusiasm for physical exercise while the number of religious holidays provided an opportunity for theatre and spectacles • Ancient terms and concepts to include would be otium and negotum; leisure and work; • Know the layout and terminology of the bath complexes/ theatres/ palaestra and amphitheatre ( seating capacities) and be able to know at least 1 piece of graffiti from each( mention Greek architecture, comedy and tragedies) • Be able to explain who gladiators were, what they wore and how they fought. • Be able to give specific examples of mozaics and paintings eg theatre masks in Naples Museum and painting of the Amphitheatre fight between Pompeians and Nucerians • Remember gambling, not just dice but cock fighting was also popular • Prostitution could double for economy and leisure and entertainment
Influence of Greeks and Egyptians • Pompeii influenced by Greeks at Cumae , Napoli and Greek town of Herculaneum • Roman expansion in 2nd century BC led to the absorption of Hellenistic culture, philosophy, art , architecture • Domestic and Public architecture used Greek columns, Doric, Ionic and Corinthian • Theatres were essentially Greek in design. Traditional Greek tragedies and comedies were performed • Influence of Greek attitudes to keeping the body fit can be seen in the Palaestra/gymnasia
Religion • Religion influenced. Romans absorbed the Greek pantheon as there own. Apollo and Venus for Pompeii and Hercules for Herculaneum, patron deities. • Mystery religions bought back by soldiers, merchants and slaves. Dionysian/Bacchus cult shown on the dining walls of the house of the mysteries • Isis bought , probably by slaves and gained popularity, especially for women, because of the promise of an afterlife. • Reflected in the Temple of Isis. Its repair soon after the earthquake speaks of its importance to the town.
ART • Paintings, mosaics and frescoes borrowed from Greek and Egyptian mythology to decorate the walls of elite houses. • In Herculaneum the image of Hercules appears in a public fountain, in private houses and in a wine shop. • The Alexander mosaic from the House of the FAUN is made from over a million tessarae. It shows the battle between Alexander and Darius the Persian king. The House also contained mosaics depicting life on the Nile
Literary influences • The library at the Villa of Papyri reflects the importance of Greek literature, drama and philosophy. A Roman was considered educated if he spoke and read Classical Greek. • Quotes as graffiti also reflect knowledge of Homer, Virgil and Diogenes
Possible 8 mark questionExplain political Life • Opening sentence; “Pompeii and Herculaneum, like all provincial towns were self governing in local matters. Written evidence from Cicero and epigraphic evidence suggests intense competition for the various magistracies, particularly Dumviri and Aedile. as a way of achieving social status” • Manner of election and duties of the Council, Quattuorvri, Quinquennales, Dumviri, Aediles and Peoples Assembly • Be able to support with evidence from statues, inscriptions, graffiti slogans and any other modern sources that you can possibly remember • You could include discussion of the political buildings, Curia, Comitium and Basilicas as well as the fundamental patron client relationship made visible through the Salutatio. • Make sure you refer to the source several times!!!!!!
Issues of conservation and restoration- done to death!!! • Pull out your practice essay and learn it • Know a definition of the two terms • Know outline of problems • Know strategies undertaken by Italian and International authorities • Be specific- Be able to cite examples of Houses which have been conserved or restored
IMPACT OF TOURISMtourists are both best friends and worst enemies of the site
SITE PROTECTION • It has been estimated that between 1975-2000 more than 600 items were stolen from the sites • Guzzo has now tried to restrict mafia infiltration of security guards by asking for police checks on all contracts • Control of traffic flow enabled by periodically closing sections of the sites. By distributing large groups they minimize the wear and tear on popular sites.