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Dispatch

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Dispatch

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  1. Dispatch • Write 10 facts about enzymes • We’ve had 6 exit quizzes, how many have you mastered? • A student asked Ms. Morris, “Ms. Morris would you get mad if I came in every Tuesday and retook the quizzes.” What do you think Ms. Morris replied Pick up 2 papers and your 2 FRQs and Hardy Lab Report

  2. Think about the 4 structures of a protein. Use your model if necessary

  3. Objectives I can explain how the structure of a protein affects its function I can explain how substrate concentration affects the rate of an enzyme I can identify and describe characteristics of prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells

  4. Why does a change in an amino acid change the quartnery structure of the protein? Give a real life example. Use at least 5 terms. Underline

  5. Proteins (Sickle-cell Disease) • Results from a single amino acid substitution in the protein hemoglobin

  6. Normal hemoglobin Sickle-cell hemoglobin Primary structure Primary structure . . . . . . Exposed hydrophobic region Glul Val Val His Leu Thr Pro Glu Val His Leu Pro Glu Thr 5 6 7 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 1 2 3 4 Secondaryand tertiarystructures Secondaryand tertiarystructures  subunit  subunit     Quaternary structure Hemoglobin A Quaternary structure Hemoglobin S     Molecules interact with one another tocrystallize into a fiber, capacity to carry oxygen is greatly reduced. Function Molecules donot associatewith oneanother, eachcarries oxygen. Function 10 m 10 m Normal cells arefull of individualhemoglobinmolecules, eachcarrying oxygen Red bloodcell shape Red bloodcell shape Figure 5.21 Hemoglobin structure and sickle-cell disease Fibers of abnormalhemoglobin deform cell into sickle shape.

  7. Enzyme-Substrate Complex

  8. Proteins (Denaturing) • Conditions that affect secondary and tertiary structure: • High temperature • pH changes • High concentrations of polar molecules • Denaturation: loss of 3-dimensional structure and thus function of the protein

  9. Correctlyfoldedprotein Polypeptide Cap Hollowcylinder The cap attaches, causing the cylinder to change shape insuch a way that it creates a hydrophilic environment for the folding of the polypeptide. The cap comesoff, and the properlyfolded protein is released. Chaperonin(fully assembled) Steps of ChaperoninAction: An unfolded poly- peptide enters the cylinder from one end. 2 1 3 Figure 5.23 Proteins (folding) • Proteins can sometimes fold incorrectly and bind to the wrong ligands. • Chaperonins are proteins that help prevent this.

  10. In Chapter 5, they mention sickle cell disease. How does this disease affect the primary, secondary, tertiary structures of the protein?

  11. Reflect on scoring guide

  12. I can explain how the structure of a protein affects its function

  13. I can explain how substrate concentration affects the rate of an enzyme

  14. Make 4 boxes

  15. Enzymes http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter2/animation__how_enzymes_work.html

  16. ACTIVITY: Take 2 pieces of different colored clay • With 1 piece of clay, make the enzyme and its active site • With the other piece of clay, make the substrates • When told, we will make products

  17. Denaturing • http://lpscience.fatcow.com/jwanamaker/animations/Enzyme%20activity.html

  18. How do enzymes speed up reactions? • http://www.dynamicscience.com.au/tester/solutions/biology/enz1asml.gif

  19. Draw and explain this graph

  20. Toothpickase

  21. Entrance Quiz Chapters 6 + 7 • What role do ribosomes play in carrying out genetic instructions? • Discuss 2 common characteristics of the mitochondria and chloroplast. • Draw a cell membrane and label 2 components • Two molecules, CO2 and H2O can cross the lipid bilayer without help from membrane bound proteins, what allows them to do this? • Compare passive and active transport

  22. Entrance Quiz Chapters 6 + 7 • What role do ribosomes play in carrying out genetic instructions? RIBOSOMES GET INSTRUCTIONS FROM RNA TO SYNTHESIZE PROTEINS 2) Discuss 2 common characteristics of the mitochondria and chloroplast. BOTH HAVE A DOUBLE MEMBRANE, RIBOSOMES, AND THEIR OWN DNA 3) Draw a cell membrane and label 2 components 4) Two molecules, CO2 and H2O can cross the lipid bilayer without help from membrane bound proteins, what allows them to do this? THEY ARE SMALL MOLECULES + DIFFUSION?PASSIVE TRANSPORT 5) Compare passive and active transport PASSIVE REQUIRES NO ENERGY, GOES FROM HIGH TO LOW ACTIVE TRANSPORT REQUIRES ATP ENERGY AND GOES FROM LOW TO HIGH

  23. Ecology, Evolution and Chemistry Test

  24. Questions 16 + 30

  25. CHAPTER 6A TOUR OF THE CELL

  26. I can identify and describe characteristics of prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells

  27. Cytology: science/study of cells • Light microscopy resolving power~ measure of clarity X400 • Electron microscopy TEM ~ electron beam to study cell ultrastructure SEM ~ electron beam to study cell surfaces • Cell fractionation ~ cell separation; organelle study • Ultracentrifuge ~ cell fractionation; 130,000rpm

  28. A cell is a living unit greater than the sum of its parts • While the cell has many structures that have specific functions, they must work together. • STRUCTURE=FUNCTION

  29. Prokaryotebacteria cells Types of cells - no organelles - organelles Eukaryoteanimal cells Eukaryoteplant cells

  30. Cell Types: Prokaryotic • Nucleoid: DNA concentration • No organelles with membranes Flagella—9 + 2 microtubules • Cell wall made of cellulose (polysaccharide) • Ribosomes:protein synthesis • Plasma membrane: (all cells); semi-permeable • Cytoplasm/cytosol(all cells)

  31. Cell types: Eukaryotic • Nucleus:membrane enclosedorganelle containing chromosomes • Membrane bound organellesof specialized form and function • Generally larger than prokaryotic cells

  32. Why are cells small???

  33. Cell Size • As cell size increases, the surface area to volume ratio decreases • Rates of chemical exchange may then be inadequate for cell size if TOO BIG • Cell size, therefore, remains small

  34. Exit Quiz • List 10 facts about enzymes 2) Draw and label a prokaryote cell