Woodland Hills School District Leadership for Learning Institute Rigor, Relevance, Respect, Results Every educator engages in effective leading, teaching and learning every day so that every student achieves every day. Day 1 2007-2008
Enhancing Professional Practice A Framework for Teaching Based on the work of Charlotte Danielson
It Matters! Years of research have made it clear that good teaching, effective instruction, matters… a lot.
“I know it seems crazy when everyone else in the world wants to be a film director, but for me, teaching is one of the few heroic jobs left. All the biggest miracles take place in the classrooms. Nothing happens without teachers.” Stephen Fears British Film Director
Impact of Teacher Effectiveness “The difference between a good(effective) teacher and a bad(ineffective) teacher can be a full level of achievement in a single school year.” Source: Eric A. Hanushek. “The Trade-Off Between Child Quantity and Quality,” Journal of Political Economy, 1992.
Good Teachers Matter Now, More than Ever • States, districts, and schools are looking for new strategies to drive improvement and close gaps. • Research confirms that effective teachers are hugely important; the single biggest factor in student learning. • If we can get effective teachers to students who need them, we can make a difference.
Good Teachers Matter Now, More than Ever “…having a high quality teacher throughout elementary school can substantially offset or even eliminate the disadvantage of low socio-economic background.” Source: Steven G. Rivkin, Eric A. Hanushek, and John F. Kain, Teachers, Schools and Academic Achievement, University of Texas-Dallas Schools Project, 2002.
The Teacher… “In a completely rational society, the best of us would aspire to be teachers and the rest of us would have to settle For something less, because passing civilization along from one generation to the next ought to be the highest honor and the highest responsibility anyone could have.” Lee Iacocca
Charlotte Danielson says • “Teachers make hundreds of nontrivial decisions daily often based on little or incomplete information. Teaching is a thinking person’s job.” • “Teaching is physically, emotionally and intellectually demanding.” • “Teaching is complex. It is useful to organize the tasks of teaching into a meaningful framework.”
Charlotte Danielson says “By providing an agreed-upon framework for excellence, a framework for professional practiceserves to structure conversations among educators about exemplary practice. A uniform framework allows those conversations to guide novices as well as to enhance the performance of veterans.”
4 Domains of Teaching Responsibility • Domain 1: Planning and Preparation • 6 Components • Elements • Domain 2: The Classroom Environment • 5 Components • Elements • Domain 3: Instruction • 5 Components • Elements • Domain 4: Professional Responsibilities • 6 Components • Elements
Domain 1: Planning and Preparation 1a.Demonstrating Knowledge of Content & Pedagogy 1b.Demonstrating Knowledge of Students 1c.Setting Instructional Outcomes 1d.Demonstrating Knowledge of Resources 1e.Designing Coherent Instruction 1f.Designing Student Assessments Domain 2: The Classroom Environment 2a.Creating an Environment of Respect & Rapport 2b.Establishing a Culture for Learning 2c.Managing Classroom Procedures 2d.Managing Student Behavior 2e.Organizing Physical Space Domain 3: Instruction 3a.Communicating with Students 3b.Using Questioning & Discussion Techniques 3c.Engaging Students in Learning 3d.Using Assessment in Instruction 3e.Demonstrating Flexibility & Responsiveness The Framework for Teaching Domain 4: Professional Responsibilities 4a.Reflecting on Teaching 4b.Maintaining Accurate Records 4c.Communicating with Families 4d.Participating in a Professional Community 4e.Growing & Developing Professionally 4f. Showing Professionalism
Why Have A Framework? • Defines expertise & establishes high standards • Reflects & organizes the complexities of teaching • Establishes a common language for professional conversation • Provides structure for self-assessment and reflection on practice p.2
Uses for a Framework • To prepare new teachers • To recruit & hire teachers • To provide a road map for novices • To guide experienced professionals • To structure & focus improvement efforts • To communicate with the larger community p.11
Interrelatedness of Domains & Components • Teaching is holistic • Interdependence among Domains & Components • Theater in round analogy: • Domains & Components • Spotlights on specifics • Focus on quality of interactions p. 31
Levels of PerformanceStructuring Professional Conversation • Distinguished • Proficient • Basic • Unsatisfactory
Domain 1Planning & Preparation Describes the critical, behind-the-scenes work of organizing for classroom instruction.
Charlotte Danielson says “Teachers who excel in Domain 1 design instruction that reflects an understanding of content and important concepts and principles within that content. Their design is coherent in its approach to topics, includes sound assessment methods and is appropriate to a range of students in the class.”
Domain 1: Planning and Preparation 1a. Demonstrating Knowledge of Content and Pedagogy 1b. Demonstrating Knowledge of Students 1c. Setting Instructional Outcomes 1d. Demonstrating Knowledge of Resources 1e. Designing Coherent Instruction 1f. Designing Student Assessment
Review of Domain 1 • 3of the most important ideas about Domain 1 • 2examples of what Domain 1 looks like • 1 question about Domain 1
Domain 2The Classroom Environment Describes the affective dimension of the quality of interpersonal relationships among students & between teacher & students, as a means of promoting learning and student achievement.
Charlotte Danielson says “Teachers who excel in Domain 2 consider their students as real people, with interests, concerns and intellectual potential. In return, the students regard them as concerned and caring adults and entrust the teachers with their futures. When students remember their teachers years later, it is often for the teacher’s skills in Domain 2.”
Domain 2: The Classroom Environment 2a. Creating an Environment of Respect & Rapport 2b. Establishing a Culture for Learning 2c. Managing Classroom Procedures 2d. Managing Student Behavior 2e. Organizing Physical Space
Anna Quindlan says “People will forget what you said and what you did, but they will never forget how you made them feel.”
Review of Domain 2 • 3of the most important ideas about Domain 2 • 2examples of what Domain 2 looks like • 1 question about Domain 2
Domain 3Instruction Describes the heart of the Framework; the critical interactive work that teachers undertake when they bring complex content to life for their students.
Charlotte Danielson says “Teachers who excel in Domain 3 create an atmosphere of excitement about the importance of learning and the significance of the content. They care deeply about their subject and invite students to share the journey of learning about it. Students are engaged in meaningful work… it is real and significant and it is important to students as well as teachers.”
Domain 3: Instruction 3a. Communicating With Students 3b. Using Questioning and Discussion Techniques 3c. Engaging Students in Learning 3d. Using Assessment in Instruction 3e. Demonstrating Flexibility and Responsiveness
Review of Domain 3 • 3of the most important ideas about Domain 3 • 2examples of what Domain 3 looks like • 1 question about Domain 3
Domain 4Professional Responsibilities Describes the other behind-the-scenes work of the teacher; commitment to high ethical and professional standards & to continuous improvement of their practice
Charlotte Danielson says “Teachers who excel in Domain 4 Are highly regarded by colleagues and parents. They can be depended on to serve students’ interests and the larger community, and they are active in their professional organizations. They go beyond the technical requirements of their jobs and contribute to the general well-being of the institutions of which they are a part.”
Domain 4: Professional Responsibilities 4a. Reflecting on Teaching 4b. Maintaining Accurate Records 4c. Communicating with Families 4d. Participating in a Professional Community 4e. Growing and Developing Professionally 4f. Showing Professionalism
Review of Domain 4 • 3of the most important ideas about Domain 4 • 2examples of what Domain 4 looks like • 1 question about Domain 4
Features of a Framework • Grounded in Research • Identifies principles of effective practice & classroom organization • Empirical research grounded in experience • Theoretical research in cognition
Ways to Use the Framework Formative Supervision & Summative Evaluation Mentoring, Induction of New Teachers Training, Supervision of Student Teachers Recruitment, Interviewing, Hiring teachers Structuring Professional Development Plan Reflective Practice & Self- Assessment Personal Reflection and Self-assessment
What’s the bottom line? • Quality curriculum • Quality resources • Quality teaching
ReflectionReflectionReflection: • Multi-sourced, honest and systematic analysis of an educational event • Rumination, musing, thoughtfulness • Calm lengthy intentional consideration • Mental concentration • In-depth, careful consideration • Deliberation, re-thinking
Reflective Practitioners • Strive for continuous improvement in their teaching through reflection on what works. • Apply a valid set of criteria to make professional judgments about the effectiveness of their teaching. • View student learning, outcomes, results as the final criterion for success. • Modify their assumptions and practices based upon results.
Reflective Practice A cognitive and open perspective that involves a deliberate pause to examine beliefs, goals or practices to gain new or deeper understanding that leads to actions which improve student learning
Charlotte Danielson says “The learner does the learning… and it is hardwork!”
Paula A. Calabrese, Ph.D. P.O. Box 464 Oakmont PA 15139-0464 Phone: 412.828.9024 Cell: 412.334.3107 Fax: 412.828.9794 email@example.com www.cardinalconsultinggroup.net