biological and radiological weapons n.
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  2. Biological Warfare • Biological Warfare is the intentional use of diseases to affect an adversary,s military force, population, crops, or livestock.

  3. EarlyHistory • 2000 years ago , Romans fouled many of their enemies water sources by throwing the corpses of dead animals into the wells. • 1346 Rats and their fleas carried disease to Tater soldiers who were attacking the walled city of Kaffa. In spite , the Taters catapulted the bodies of victims at the defending Genoese who contracted plague and left Kaffa.

  4. EarlyHistory • 1754 - 1767 During the French and Indian war, the British offered blankets exposed with smallpox to the Indians at Fort Carillon. Once they became ill and the epidemic spread through the Fort, the English attacked defeating the incapacitated force. Renamed it Fort Ticonderoga.

  5. Early History • 1860’s American Civil War, Confederate soldiers shot horses and other farm animals in ponds in an effort to contaminate the water supply of the Union forces.

  6. Biological Warfare • There are two basic categories of biological agents. • 1. Microorganisms: (Pathogens)Which are living organic germs, such as anthrax. • 2. Toxins: The byproducts of living organisms, or effectively natural poisons, such as botulism.

  7. Anthrax Smallpox Plague Botulism Tularemia Q Fever Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers Toxins - Plants - Animals - Mycotoxins Biological Agents

  8. BiggestThreats • Anthrax: Caused by bacteria that normally reside in soil, in the form of microscopic spores. The spores change into the anthrax bacteria, which produce a toxin that can be fatal to humans and animals. • - Three forms of Anthrax

  9. Anthrax • 1. Cutaneous anthrax. Anthrax spores can enter a cut on the skin, leading to a localized infection. The infection at first may resemble an insect bite but within days develops into an open sore with a characteristic black center. • 2. Intestinal anthrax. Humans can ingest anthrax bacteria by consuming meat from an infected animal. Intestinal anthrax causes inflammation of the intestines, often leading to vomiting of blood and severe diarrhea

  10. Anthrax • 3. Inhalation anthrax. This is the most deadly form of anthrax. If inhaled, anthrax spores can infect the lungs. After about 12 hours, initial symptoms begin to appear that resemble a mild cold or flu. These initial symptoms may include fatigue, low-grade fever and a dry cough. But after several days, the infection progresses, producing a high fever and pneumonia. Once the infection has spread, inhalation anthrax is fatal in about 90 % of cases.

  11. Anthrax • Fortunately, all three forms of anthrax are treatable with antibiotics if treatment begins early.

  12. Smallpox • A highly contagious viral disease: The variola virus causes smallpox. Signs and symptoms of smallpox include a high fever, fatigue and aches, followed by a rash. The lesions resemble small pocks- tiny, pus-filled blisters most prominent on the face, arms and legs. • May take a week or longer before signs and symptoms appear. • The disease spreads by contact with respiratory secretions of someone infected.

  13. Smallpox • There’s no proven treatment for smallpox. • Place infected persons in quarantine. • In nonfatal cases, the disease runs its course in about a month. • There is a smallpox vaccine. The vaccine can lessen the severity of the disease or even prevent it if given promptly to someone who may have been exposed to the virus.

  14. Biological Warfare Possible means of Dissemination: Vectors (an animal that carries the disease) Contamination of high traffic areas (post offices, mass transit, ventilation ducts) Contaminating the water supply Aerosol spray from planes Bomblets

  15. Biological Warfare Signs of Biological Attack: Fatigue, Fever, Inflammation in people Sick or Dead Animals Sudden Swarms of Insects Evidence of a biological attack is often delayed! This is a reason it is very difficult to detect...

  16. Protection FromBiological Agents Training in Biological Warfare Immunizations – Receive proper shots prior to Deployment Camp Cleanliness – Unsanitary conditions increase the threat and multiplication of pathogens Personal Hygiene – The best decon is a hot, soapy shower with special attention paid to hairy areas and underneath fingernails.

  17. Protection From Biological Agents Main entry point for biological agents is through mucous membranes and breaks in the skin Best means of eliminating biohazards in the field is weathering (UV rays from sunlight will eventually kill most biological agents) Single most feared factor regarding biological agents is the inability to accurately detect them ...The military presently does not have detectors capable of detecting biological agents!


  19. U.S. POLICY • The U.S. has vowed to never use BW agents under any circumstances. All BW agent work is limited to defensive measures such as developing immunizations, detection methods, personal protective equipment, decontamination, rapid diagnostic tests, and treatments.

  20. ATOM RadiologicalWarfare Radiological Warfare • • The employment of nuclear weapons • to destroy property and personnel • Delivery methods: • - Air burst • - Surface burst • - Underground/underwater burst • ...The U.S. uses nuclear weapons as a • Strategic Deterrence

  21. Air Burst Air burst characteristics - Fire ball does not touch the earth - All material in the fire ball is vaporized - Maximized blast and thermal effect over large area

  22. Surface Burst Surface Burst Characteristics - Fire ball touches the earth - Surface material vaporized and lifted in the air - Produces large amounts of fallout, maximizing personnel casualties - Range of blast less than that of an air burst

  23. Underwater Burst Underwater Burst Characteristics - Practically all thermal radiation is absorbed - Large base surge is formed which billows up several hundred feet - Initial radiation absorbed by water, but considerable residual radiation in rain/water from base surge

  24. Types of Radiation Alpha Particles - Internal hazard cannot penetrate skin or clothing - Ranges 0 – 3 inches off the ground - Only harmful if inhaled or swallowed Beta Particles - Internal and external hazard - Most prevalent in fallout - Ranges 6 -10 ft in the air - Can detect its presence, cannot be measured accurately

  25. Types of Radiation Gamma Rays - Pure Energy waves - Can’t be stopped, can only reduce the intensity by distance and shielding. This makes gamma the most dangerous TIME, DISTANCE, AND SHIELDING ...YOUR MOST EFFECTIVE MEANS OF PROTECTION FROM NUCLEAR RADIATION!

  26. Effects ofNuclear Explosions Blast - Mach Front: The initial shock front formed in the blast - Shock Wave: A continuous propagating pressure wave caused by expanding hot gases - positive phase (compression phase) - negative phase (suction phase) Thermal Yield - Thermal energy (fireball) released in initial blast, lasts less than a minute - Intense heat incinerates/ burns surrounding buildings, landscape, people

  27. Effects ofNuclear Explosions Electromagnetic Pulse - Sharp pulse of radio frequency electromagnetic radiation that damages and disrupts unprotected electronic equipment Fallout - Contaminated dirt and debris sucked up in the initial blast that falls back to earth (alpha and beta radiation) - early (local) fallout returns to earth in the first 24 hours - delayed fallout (worldwide) made of fine particles in the upper atmosphere carried around the world in months and years to follow

  28. Methods of Detection Radiological Detection Meters (RADIAC) AN/PDR – 27 - Measures low-level gamma up to 500mR/hr (milliRoentgens/hour), detects beta AN/PDR – 43 - Measures high-level gamma up to 500 R/hr, detects beta AN/PDQ-1 & AN/PDQ-2 - Next generation Multi-function RADIAC (MFR), lighter, more versatile than the 27 and 43 models - Detect hi/low gamma, beta, alpha, neutron, and X-ray radiation

  29. Methods of Detection Pocket Dosimeters IM – 143/PD 0 – 600 Roentgen IM – 9/PD 0 – 200 milliRoentgens - Used to track total personal exposure for Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) levels in gamma and X-rays PP – 4276C/PD - Detector charger for the 9 and 143

  30. Methods of Detection Dosimeters DT – 60C/PD - Reads total exposure from 0-600 RAD CP – 95A/PD - Reads the DT-60 - 0-200 mR - 0-600 R - All Dosimeters are worn at waist to chest level, so that the reading reflects the center of mass dosage

  31. Radiation Exposure Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) - Set by Unit Commander as the maximum allowable exposure for any of his personnel - Usually set at 150 Roentgens Casualty Dose - The dosage of radiation at which a person is considered a casualty, regardless of symptoms or appearance - Navy Standard is 250 Roentgens

  32. Radiation Exposure Acute Exposure - One shot dose received in 24 hours or less - Physical effects include nausea, vomiting, anemia, hair loss, internal bleeding Chronic Exposure - Received over an extended period, exposure for life - Tracked in a person’s medical record - Physical effects include cataracts, leukemia/ other cancers, genetic defects, shortened lifespan

  33. NBC Marking Kit NATO – Standard Triangular Signs - Markers are placed outside the contaminated area - Markers face OUT from the contamination - Each kit contains 60 signs, 48 mounting stakes, 13 rolls of tape, and 2 red crayons

  34. BIO Anthrax 091900ZAPR99 Biological Marker Remember: Blue – Bio.

  35. Radiological Marker ATOM 091900ZAPR99 150 R/Hr H/Hr 091200ZAPR99 Remember: Blinding WHITE flash leaves behind black charred remains

  36. Chemical - Designate MOPP Level - Attach M-9 Paper to JSLIST Suit and equipment - Remain alert, understand alarms and signals - Cover, Protect and Disperse Equipment Biological - Practice good hygiene - Have up-to-date immunizations - Use only approved food and water sources Radiological - Dig in, cover up - Cover, protect, and disperse equipment Pre-Attack Actions

  37. Chemical & Biological - Stop breathing, close eyes, don mask - Give the alarm - Continue mission - Assist others as time permits Radiological - Drop face down - Close eyes, cover skin - Remain down until debris stops falling - Check weapon and equipment and continue with mission Attack Actions

  38. Chemical - Provide buddy aid - Report casualty status - Do not unmask until authorized to do so Biological - Do not unmask until authorized to do so - Conduct decontamination - Promptly report any sickness Radiological - Begin fallout monitoring - Take cover - Use cloth to cover mouth and nose - Remove contamination Post - Attack Actions

  39. The End QUESTIONS?