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Unit12

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  1. Unit12

  2. Cultural Information 1. Id, Ego and Super-ego (proposed by Sigmund Freud) Cultural information1 Id, ego and super-ego are the three parts of human psyche. Id: • the impulsive, child-like portion of the psyche that operates on the “pleasure principle” • only taking into account what it wants and disregards all consequences Super-ego: • working in contradiction to the id • striving to act in a socially appropriate manner, whereas • the id just wants instant self-gratification

  3. Cultural Information Ego: Cultural information2 • acting according to the reality principle, i.e. it seeks to please the id’s drive in realistic ways that will benefit in the long term rather than bringing grief • attempting to exact a balance between the impractical hedonism of the id and the equally impractical moralism of the super-ego • the part of the psyche that is usually • reflected most directly in a person’s • actions

  4. Cultural Information Significance: Being aware of these parts of human psyche can help us better understand ourselves. For example, once our instinct (id) drives us to do something unethical, the super-ego will run counter to this attempt by relating to social morals. The result of this is the ego of us presented before the public, balanced by two forces. Reflect yourselves to see if these concepts make sense. Cultural information2

  5. Text Analysis Structural Analysis Rhetorical Features It is a short story, and the characters in it are mired in a tough situation. When one’s existence is threatened, most probably the hidden animal in our nature might jump out. It is up to us to decide whether we would let loose our evil nature or resort to something more powerful to conquer this intent. In this short story, the author offers us a possible solution for what we should resort to — our commitment to a certain post, i.e. our responsibility for people under our leadership. When the divine half of our self is at the risk of being overwhelmed by the beast half or the bright side of our human nature is at the risk of being overshadowed by the dark side, this kind of commitment or responsibility might have the power to Global Reading - Structural analysis

  6. Text Analysis Structural Analysis Rhetorical Features Global Reading - Structural analysis ennoble the human spirit and prevent us from being merely beastly. The ending of the story is quite an idealistic one: when “I” passed the responsibility on to Barrett, the beast in his body suddenly receded or fell tamed under its charm, the consequence of which was that all men were miraculously rescued before any beastlike deeds were committed. It shows the author’s good wish as well as his optimistic view of human nature in critical situations.

  7. Text Analysis Structural Analysis Rhetorical Features 1) In terms of organization, the article clearly falls into three main parts: Structural analysis The first part (Paragraphs1-2) is the introductory part of the story, and it leaves certain suspense for readers to carry on. The second part (Paragraphs3-23) the author narrates and describes in detail the desperate situation they were in and the responsibility Snyder shouldered. The third part (Paragraphs24-28) is the end of the story.

  8. Text Analysis Structural Analysis Rhetorical Features 2) In the story, we perceive the turn of Jeff Barrett: Structural analysis a strong and dangerous man, a constant threat to the hope of the survivors on the lifeboat → the person to keep the order and protect the water when Snyder was asleep The author wants to convey that how a sense of responsibility could be aroused by one’s position.

  9. Text Analysis Structural Analysis Rhetorical Features Rhetorical devices used in the story — the extensive employment of phrases, either independently or dependently: Rhetorical Features • Independent Phrases e.g. ①There wasn’t much in it after twenty days. Maybe a pint. (Paragraph 4) — used to make the information contained in the previous sentence more concrete ②Jeff Barrett was the nearest one. A constant threat. (Paragraph 9) — a sort of appositive

  10. Text Analysis Structural Analysis Rhetorical Features • Dependent Phrases (placed immediately after a sentence) Rhetorical Features e.g. ①They’d stopped that long ago, too weak to go on. (Paragraph 7) — a further explanation of the previous sentence ②The bos’n’s mate was a heavy man, bald, with a scarred and brutal face. (Paragraph 9) — a prepositional phrase which further describes the man

  11. Detailed Reading “Take Over, Bos’n!” Oscar Schisgall 1 Hour after hour I kept the gun pointed at the other nine men. From the lifeboat’s stern, where I’d sat most of the twenty days of our drifting, I could keep them all covered. If I had to shoot at such close quarters, I wouldn’t miss. They realized that. Nobody jumped at me. But in the way they all glared I could see how they’d come to hate my guts. 2 Especially Barrett, who’d been bos’n’s mate; Barrett said in his harsh, cracked voice, “You’re a fool, Snyder. Y-you can’t hold out forever! You’re half asleep now!” Detailed reading 1-2

  12. Detailed Reading 3 I didn’t answer. He was right. How long can a man stay awake? I hadn’t dared to shut my eyes in maybe seventy-two hours. Very soon now I’d doze off, and the instant that happened they’d jump on the little water that was left. 4 The last canteen lay under my legs. There wasn’t much in it after twenty days. Maybe a pint. Enough to give each of them a few drops. Yet I could see in their bloodshot eyes that they’d gladly kill me for those few drops. As a man I didn’t count any more. I was no longer third officer of the wrecked Montala. I was just a gun that kept them away from the water they craved. And with their tongue swollen and their cheeks sunken, they were half crazy. Detailed reading3-4

  13. Detailed Reading 5 The way I judged it, we must be some two hundred miles east of Ascension. Now that the storms were over, the Atlantic swells were long and easy, and the morning sun was hot — so hot it scorched your skin. My own tongue was thick enough to clog my throat. I’d have given the rest of my life for a single gulp of water. 6 But I was the man with the gun — the only authority in the boat — and I knew this: once the water was gone we’d have nothing to look forward to but death. As long as we could look forward to getting a drink later, there was something to live for. We had to make it last as long as possible. If I’d given in to the curses, we’d have emptied the last canteen days ago. By now we’d all be dead. Detailed reading5-6

  14. Detailed Reading 7 The men weren’t pulling on the oars. They’d stopped that long ago, too weak to go on. The nine of them facing me were a pack of bearded, ragged, half-naked animals, and I probably looked as bad as the rest. Some sprawled over the gunwales, dozing. The rest watched me as Barrett did, ready to spring the instant I relaxed. 8 When they weren’t looking at my face they looked at the canteen under my legs. 9 Jeff Barrett was the nearest one. A constant threat. The bos’n’s mate was a heavy man, bald, with a scarred and brutal face. He’d been in a hundred fights, and they’d left their marks on him. Detailed reading7-9

  15. Detailed Reading 10 Barrett had been able to sleep — in fact, he’d slept through most of the night — and I envied him that. His eyes wouldn’t close. They kept watching me, narrow and dangerous. 11 Every now and then he taunted me in that hoarse, broken voice: 12 “Why don’t you quit? You can’t hold out!” 13 “Tonight,” I said. “We’ll ration the rest of the water tonight.” 14 “By tonight some of us’ll be dead! We want it now!” 15 “Tonight ,” I said. Detailed reading10-15

  16. Detailed Reading 16 Couldn’t he understand that if we waited until night the few drops wouldn’t be sweated out of us so fast? But Barrett was beyond all reasoning. His mind had already cracked with thirst. I saw him begin to rise, a calculating look in his eyes. I aimed the gun at his chest — and he sat down again. 17 I’d grabbed my Luger on instinct, twenty days ago, just before running for the lifeboat. Nothing else would have kept Barrett and the rest away from the water. 18 These fools — couldn’t they see I wanted a drink as badly as any of them? But I was in command here — that was the difference. I was the man with the gun, the man who had to think. Each of the others could afford to think only of himself; I had to think of them all. Detailed reading16-18

  17. Detailed Reading 19 Barrett’s eyes kept watching me, waiting. I hated him. I hated him all the more because he’d slept. He had that advantage now. He wouldn’t keel over. 20 And long before noon I knew I couldn’t fight any more. My eyelids were too heavy to lift. As the boat rose and fell on the long swells, I could feel sleep creeping over me like paralysis. I bent my head. It filled my brain like a cloud. I was going, going … 21 Barrett stood over me, and I couldn’t even lift the gun. In a vague way I could guess what would happen. He’d grab the water first and take his drop. By that time the others would be screaming and tearing at him, and he’d have to yield the canteen. Well, there was nothing more I could do about it. Detailed reading19-21

  18. Detailed Reading 22 I whispered, “Take over, bos’n.” 23 Then I fell face down in the bottom of the boat. I was asleep before I stopped moving … 24 When a hand shook my shoulder, I could hardly raise my head. Jeff Barrett’s hoarse voice said, “Here! Take your share o’ the water!” 25 Somehow I propped myself up on my arms, dizzy and weak. I looked at the men, and I thought my eyes were going. Their figures were dim, shadowy; but then I realized it wasn’t because of my eyes. It was night. The sea was black; there were stars overhead, I’d slept the day away. Detailed reading22-25

  19. Detailed Reading 26 So we were in our twenty-first night adrift — the night in which the tramp Croton finally picked us up — but now, as I turned my head to Barrett there was no sign of any ship.He knelt beside me, holding out the canteen, his other hand with gun steady on the men. 27 I stared at the canteen as if it were a mirage. Hadn’t they finished that pint of water this morning? When I looked up at Barrett’s ugly face, it was grim. He must have guessed my thoughts. 28 “You said, ‘Take over, bos’n,’ didn’t you?” he growled. “I’ve been holding off these apes all day.” He hefted the Luger in his hand. “When you’re boss-man,” he added, “in command and responsible for the rest — you — you sure get to see things different, don’t you?” Detailed reading26-28

  20. Detailed Reading Detailed reading1-2--Quesion Do you think Snyder could control the situation? No. This was a situation of confrontation of one versus nine. At present Snyder was in control because he had the gun, but considering the fact that he hadn’t slept for seventy-two hours and was already half asleep, he could hardly hold on. If he should ever doze off, he would easily find himself on the losing side.

  21. Detailed Reading Detailed reading3--Quesion What was the cause of the confrontation? After drifting on the sea for twenty days, the ten survivors of a ship wreckage were dying from thirst. The only canteen left gave them the hope to keep on. Knowing their hope would evaporate once the last drop of water was gone, Snyder, the man in command, was pointing his gun at these thirsty men to prevent them from taking their gulp. But the other men, not realizing his well-meant will, were glaring at the water, ready to spring up at every minute, take hold of it and gulp it down.

  22. Detailed Reading Detailed reading4--Quesion Why did Snyder insist that they wait till night for the last few drops of water? According to Snyder, the water drunk in the sun would be sweated out very fast, but if it were taken down at night, it would last longer.

  23. Detailed Reading What made Barrett give up his chance of drinking the water? Detailed reading24--Quesion Barrett explained that he was given the responsibility to take others out of danger when Snyder handed him the gun and said, “Take over, bos’n.” Once given the authority, he would learn to view things from a different angle.

  24. Detailed Reading Detailed reading28– Activity Class Activity Debate: Do you believe that in critical moments a person’s commitment to certain leading position will overcome his/her nature which is mostly selfish? Both the affirmative side and the negative side should illustrate your argument with examples from history or your own experience.

  25. Detailed Reading stern Detailed reading2– stern n.the rear end of a ship or boat e.g. Go and stand in / at the stern of the boat. a.hard, grim, or severe in manner and character e.g. a stern headmaster / parent / police officer Synonym: austere, exacting, firm, harsh, severe, strict

  26. Detailed Reading guts n. Detailed reading2-- guts 1. the internal organs of the abdomen e.g. Oh, I have a terrible pain in the guts. It feels like food poisoning. 2. courage or determination e.g. You need a lot of guts to admit your mistake in the presence of your boss. Practice: 自己创业是需要勇气的。 It takes guts to start a new business on your own.

  27. Detailed Reading pounce v. Detailed reading1– pounce spring or fly down suddenly in order to seize something e.g. The cat was hiding in the bushes, ready to pounce. Collocation: pounce on / upon e.g. We saw the tiger about to pounce on the goat.

  28. Detailed Reading canteen n. Detailed reading1– canteen 1. a small, usu. leather container in which water or other drink is carried e.g. There is little water left in the canteen. 2. a place serving food and drink in a factory, an office, a school, etc. e.g. Students prefer to eat in the school canteen because there is a wide variety of foods on the menu, which changes every day.

  29. Detailed Reading rationv. Detailed reading1– ration limit the amount of something that each person is allowed to have The government had to ration the food during the war. e.g. Practice: 咖啡每天只能喝两杯。 Coffee is rationed to two cups a day.

  30. Detailed Reading stare v. Detailed reading1– stare 1 gaze fixedly e.g. She was staring into the distance. gaze, stare, gape, glare, peer, ogle Comparison: 1. Gaze refers to prolonged looking that is often indicative of wonder, fascination, awe, or admiration. e.g. gaze at the moon; gaze into his eyes 2. To stare is to gaze fixedly; the word can indicate curiosity, boldness, insolence, or stupidity. e.g. The old couple stared at them in disbelief. stare into the distance

  31. Detailed Reading 3. Gape suggests a prolonged open-mouthed look reflecting amazement, awe, or lack of intelligence. Detailed reading2– stare 2 e.g. Tourists are gaping at the sights. 4. To glare is to fix another with a hard, piercing stare. e.g. She glared furiously at him when he contradicted her. 5. To peer is to look narrowly, searchingly, and seemingly with difficulty. e.g. He peered through his spectacles at the contract. 6. To ogle is to stare in an amorous manner (often used to show disapproval). e.g. She resented the way that the construction workers on their lunch hour ogled passing women.

  32. Detailed Reading But in the way they all glared I could see how they’d come to hate my guts. (Paragraph 1) Detailed reading1– But in the way … Paraphrase: But from the way they stared at me I could figure out that they hated me very much.

  33. Detailed Reading Detailed reading6– If I’d given If I’d given in to the curses, we’d have emptied the last canteen days ago. (Paragraph 6) Paraphrase: If I had yielded to magic spells which were placed upon us with harmful intention, we would have drunk up the remaining water in the canteen days ago.

  34. Detailed Reading Detailed reading26– So we were So we were in our twenty-first night adrift – the night in which the tramp Croton finally picked us up — but now, as I turned my head to Barrett there was no sign of any ship. (Paragraph 26) Paraphrase: We were saved by a ship which does not have a fixed schedule or published ports of call on the twenty-first night on the sea, but now when I turned my head to Barrett, no ship seemed to come around.

  35. Vocabulary Grammar Translation Integrated Skills Oral Activities Writing Listening Consolidation Activities- Vocabulary main Word Derivation Phrase Practice Synonym / Antonym

  36. Vocabulary Grammar Translation Integrated Skills Oral Activities Writing Listening Fill in the blank in each sentence with an appropriate phrasal verb or collocation from the text. Consolidation Activities-Phrase practice 1 1) “Come on, lazy bones. Do something! You can’t your entire life like this.” sleep away ____________ 2) The urban planners seemed to no hope of renovating the abbey before Christmas. hold out _________ 3) Introverted people are more likely to from strangers who try to strike up a conversation with them. ______________________ hold off/keep away 4) After three hours of strenuous training, the young footballer and fell flat on his back, exhausted. keeled over _____________

  37. Vocabulary Grammar Translation Integrated Skills Oral Activities Writing Listening Consolidation Activities-Phrase practice 2 5) It is reported that the military are threatening to if the civil unrest continues. ___________ take over

  38. Vocabulary Grammar Translation Integrated Skills Oral Activities Writing Listening Consolidation Activities- sleep away sleep away: sleep in order to stop thinking or worrying about sth., or to stop feeling sth.; to spend a period of time in sleeping e.g. 周末的半个上午有时是被我睡过去的。 At weekends, I sometimes sleep away half the morning.

  39. Vocabulary Grammar Translation Integrated Skills Oral Activities Writing Listening Consolidation Activities- hold out hold out: think or say that sth. is possible or likely to happen, especially sth. good e.g. 谈判双方对和平解决事件没有抱太大希望。 Negotiators aren’t holding out much hope of a peaceful settlement.

  40. Vocabulary Grammar Translation Integrated Skills Oral Activities Writing Listening Consolidation Activities- hold off hold off:prevent sb. from coming towards you or succeeding in speaking to you e.g. 外面已经有很多记者了——我要避开他们一会。 There’s already a crowd of reporters outside — I’ll try to hold them off for a while. keep away: (cause sb./sth.) not to go near sb./sth. e.g. 没有人能够完全远离这个竞争社会。 Nobody can entirely keep away from this competitive world.

  41. Vocabulary Grammar Translation Integrated Skills Oral Activities Writing Listening Consolidation Activities- keel over keel over: fall over sideways e.g. 一些战士在烈日下昏倒了。 Several soldiers keeled over in the hot sun.

  42. Vocabulary Grammar Translation Integrated Skills Oral Activities Writing Listening Consolidation Activities- take over take over: take control of sth. e.g. 他注资这家公司的唯一原因是想接手。 His only reason for investing in the company was to take it over.

  43. Vocabulary Grammar Translation Integrated Skills Oral Activities Writing Listening 1) paralysis n. → paralyze v. Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 1.1 e.g. 他右腿瘫痪步履维艰。 总罢工使煤矿工业陷于瘫痪。 The paralysis affects his right leg and he can only walk with difficulty. A general strike paralyzed the coal industry.

  44. Vocabulary Grammar Translation Integrated Skills Oral Activities Writing Listening 2) brutality n.→ brutal a. → brute n. Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 1.2 e.g. 那些人质遭到惨无人道的对待。 他做那种事是很残忍的。 他的父亲是个酗酒成性﹑ 冷酷无情的人。 The hostages were subjected to extreme brutality. It was brutal of him to do that. His father was a drunken brute.

  45. Vocabulary Grammar Translation Integrated Skills Oral Activities Writing Listening 3) wreckage n. → wrecked a. → wrecker n. → wreck n. Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 1.3 消防员将幸存者从废墟中拉出来。 失事的船只 她将他视为她所有梦想的破坏者。 那辆汽车在碰撞事故中成了一堆废铁。 e.g. Firemen managed to pull some survivors from the wreckage. a wrecked ship She saw him as the wrecker of all her dreams. The collision reduced the car to a useless wreck.

  46. Vocabulary Grammar Translation Integrated Skills Oral Activities Writing Listening 4) judg(e)ment n. → judg(e)mental a. → judge v. Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 1.4 e.g. 现在预言结果还为时过早。 别老是这么批判的态度好吧! 据我判断,他们都有责任。 It’s too soon to make a judgment about what the outcome will be. Stop always being so judgmental! As far as I can judge, they are all to blame.

  47. Vocabulary Grammar Translation Integrated Skills Oral Activities Writing Listening 5) advantageous a. → advantaged n. → disadvantage n. Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 1.5 e.g. 他的决定对我们有利。 他具备受过良好教育的优势。 没有适当的公共交通工具是不利因素。 His decision is advantageous to us. He had the advantage of a good education. The lack of decent public transport is a great disadvantage.

  48. Vocabulary Grammar Translation Integrated Skills Oral Activities Writing Listening 6) count v.→ countable a.→ countdown n. → discount v. Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 1.6 e.g. 因为她有经验,所以她的意见很重要。 可数名词 婚礼倒计时 许多商店出售商品一概不打折扣。 Her opinion counts because of her experience. a countable noun the countdown to the wedding Many stores do not discount at all.

  49. Vocabulary Grammar Translation Integrated Skills Oral Activities Writing Listening 7) scorch v. → scorching a.→ scorcher n. Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 1.7 e.g. 熨斗烫焦了桌布。 烈日炎炎。 好热的天! The iron scorched the tablecloth. It was a scorching hot day. What a scorcher!

  50. Vocabulary Grammar Translation Integrated Skills Oral Activities Writing Listening 8) command n. → commander n. → commanding a. → commandment n. Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 1.8 e.g. 他的命令已迅速执行。 总司令 指挥官要下属绝对服从。 你能背诵十诫吗? His commands were quickly obeyed. commander-in-chief The commanding officer expected unquestioning obedience from his men. Can you recite the Ten Commandants?