1 / 47

Location planning and analysis

Location planning and analysis. Need for Location Decisions. Marketing Strategy Cost of Doing Business Growth Depletion of Resources. Nature of Location Decisions. Strategic Importance Long term commitment/costs Impact on investments, revenues, and operations Supply chains Objectives

Télécharger la présentation

Location planning and analysis

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

  1. Location planning and analysis

  2. Need for Location Decisions • Marketing Strategy • Cost of Doing Business • Growth • Depletion of Resources

  3. Nature of Location Decisions • Strategic Importance • Long term commitment/costs • Impact on investments, revenues, and operations • Supply chains • Objectives • Profit potential • No single location may be better than others • Identify several locations from which to choose • Options • Expand existing facilities • Add new facilities • Move

  4. Making Location Decisions • Decide on the criteria • Identify the important factors • Develop location alternatives • Evaluate the alternatives • Make selection

  5. Location Decision Factors Community Considerations Regional Factors Site-related Factors Multiple Plant Strategies

  6. Regional Factors • Location of raw materials • Location of markets • Labor factors • Climate and taxes

  7. Community Considerations • Quality of life • Services • Attitudes • Taxes • Environmental regulations • Utilities • Developer support

  8. Site Related Factors • Land • Transportation • Environmental • Legal

  9. Multiple Plant Strategies • Product plant strategy • Market area plant strategy • Process plant strategy

  10. Comparison of Service and Manufacturing Considerations

  11. Trends in Locations • Foreign producers locating in another country • “Made in” effect • Currency fluctuations • Just-in-time manufacturing techniques • Microfactories • Information Technology

  12. 3+1 methods to evaluate location alternatives Locational Cost-Profit-Volume Analysis Factor rating The Center of Gravity method The transportation model

  13. Locational Cost-Profit-Volume Analysis • Numerical and graphical analysis are both feasible. We focus on the graphical one. • The steps: • Determine the fixed and variable costs for each location • Plot the total-cost lines for all location alternatives on the same graph • Determine which location will have the lowest total cost for the expected level of output. Alternatively, determine which location will have the highest profit.

  14. Assumptions of the CPV Analysis • Fixed costs are constant for the range of probable output • Variable costs are linear for the range of probable output • The required level of output can be closely estimated • Only one product is involved

  15. Cost Total cost = VC + FC Total variable cost (VC) Fixed cost (FC) 0 Q (volume in units) The total cost curve • TC = FC + VC = FC + v*Q

  16. Alternatively, the total profit is • TP = Q * (R – v) – FC

  17. A simpleproblemfromthetext-book

  18. Plotting the total-cost lines

  19. Calculatethebreak-even output levels • For B and C: 100,000 + 30*Q = 150,000 + 20*Q Q = 5,000 • For C and A: 150,000 + 20*Q = 250,000 + 11*Q Q = 11,111

  20. Which location is the best?

  21. Anotherproblemforthesamemethod

  22. The plot

  23. Factor rating • Can be used for a wide range of problems • The procedure: • Determine the relevant factors • Assign a weight to each factor, indicating its importance (usually 0-1) • Decide on a common scale of the factors and transform them to that scale • Score each location alternative • Multiply the factor weight by the score for each factor and sum the results for each location • Choose the alternative with the highest composite score

  24. Example form the text-book

  25. The Center of Gravity method • Its aim is to determine the location of a facility that will minimize the shipping cost or travel time to various destinations. • Frequently used in determining the location of schools, firefighter bases, public safety centres, highways, distribution centres, retail businesses…

  26. Assumptions • The distribution cost is a linear function of the distance and the quantity shipped • The relative quantity shipped to each destination is fixed in time

  27. Map and coordinates • A map is needed that shows the locations of destinations • A coordinate system is overlaid on the map to determine the coordinates of each destination • The aim is to find the coordinates of the optimal location for the facility, as a weighted average of the x and y coordinates of each destinations, where the weights are the shipped quantities. This is the centre of gravity.

  28. A sample problem

  29. The formulas

  30. The solution

  31. The transportation model A special case of the linear programming model

  32. The transportation problem • …involves finding the lowest-cost plan for distributing stocks of supplies from multiple origins to multiple destinations that demand them.

  33. The optimal shipping plan • The transportation model is used to determine how to allocate the supplies available at the origins to the customers, in such a way that total shipping cost is minimized. • The optimal set of shipments is called the optimal shipping plan. • There can be more optimal shipping plans. • The plan will change if any of the parameters changes significantly.

  34. A possible transportation problem situation D D S S D S D

  35. Defining the classic transportation problem • The goods have more shipping points (suppliers) and more destinations (buyers). • Prices are fixed. • The sum of the quantities supplied and the sum of quantities demanded are equal. There are no surpluses nor shortages. • ai and bj are both positive (there are no reverse flow of goods) • the dependent variables are the transported quantities form origin i to destination j: xij≥ 0 • All of the supplies should be sold and all of the demand should be satisfied. • Tha aim is to minimize the total transportation cost: • Homogeneous goods. • Shipping costs per unit are constant. • Only one route and mode ofg transportation exists between each origin and each destination.

  36. Typical areas of transportation problems • Suppliers of components and assembly plants. • Factories and shops. • Suppliers of raw materials and factories. • Food processing factories and food retailers.

  37. Informations needed to built a model • A list of the shipping points with their capacities (supply quantities). • A list of the destinations with their demand. • Transportation costs per unit from each origin to each destination • Question: what if prices of the good are differ form supplier to supplier?

  38. Surplus • If the total supply is greater than the total demand, than we have to add a ‘phantom’ destination to the model the demand of which is equal to the surplus. • The transportation cost to this phantom destination is 0 from every supplier. • De quantities shipped to this virtual customer will be those that will not be bought by anybody.

  39. Shortages The formal solution is the same as it was in the case of a surplus (with 0 transportation costs): But: mathematics are less adequate in the case of shortages than in the case of surplusses, because of the consequences.

  40. The transportation table

  41. Solving transportation problems • Never try without a computer • There can be many equivalent solutions (with the same total cost).

  42. Creating models and solving them

  43. Thanks for the attention!

More Related