So what makes a… “NATION” a nation? “STATE” a state?
Kosovo 2008 Kosovo Today
STATE • “Recognized” boundaries • Independent Political Unit • Internationally recognized by others (UN? US?) as sovereign • Has official currency • Is defended / can be sustained (Iraq?) • Group of people sharing certain characteristics (usually cultural) • Common identity • Not recognized as sovereign • No official boundaries • No official currency • Often unable to defend NATION
Kosovo Today Kosovo is a disputed landlocked region in the Balkans. Its majority is governed by the partially-recognized Republic of Kosovo. The Republic of Serbia does not recognize the secession of the province and considers Kosovo a United Nations-governed entity within its sovereign territory, the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija. In February 2008, the Assembly of Kosovo declared Kosovo's independence as the Republic of Kosovo. As of April 29, 2012, its independence is recognised by 96 (out of 193) UN member states.
STATES Political units with sovereignty
Exercise of power over people and territory. • Boundaries / authority recognized • by other states. Sovereignty
State Territoriality (“patriotism”) Identity based on political unit: Not necessarily on culture, ideology, or beliefs “I am a Nigerian.” “I am an American.”
NATION A cultural group with a territorial identity: a sense of a “homeland” Over 5,000 ethnic “nations” cannot all become states, yet many are large enough to survive (larger than some states)
Ethnic Territoriality (“nationalism”) Identity based on ethnicity, not necessarily political boundaries Québecois in Canada Basques in Spain/France
NATION-STATE • State with “one” nation • (none “pure” but some close) • Nearly all states multiethnic • (more than one nation) • Nation and state • border virtually • identical
Nations without a state Roma (Gypsies) Hmong Kurds
National Congruence Desire for state boundaries to match ethnic boundaries * If majority does not want minority * If minority wants self-determination • Iran: • Persians • Shi’a • Farsi (language) Boundaries of Albania in different eras
Religious Territoriality States defined by religion Saudi Arabia Vatican City Vatican City Israel Iran
Racial Territoriality States defined by race White supremacist map for a racial partition of the U.S. South Africa’s white and black areas under Apartheid(racial separation)
South African Apartheid (racial separation), 1948-94 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lKCJWjqjQww
South African Black Homelands “Bantustans” forced on Blacks 76% of population given 13% of land; denied citizenship in rest (ethnocide)
Core Group States are often constructed around / led by a dominant ethnic, racial or religious group English in U.K. Whites in U.S. Russians in U.S.S.R. & Russia
Secession Separation from state (independence) Commonwealth of Independent States Soviet Union Quebec Secession Voting Kosovo
Confederalism Transfer / dissolution of most power from core group / central government to regions Bosnia after civil war ended in 1995, divided into Bosnian-Serb and Muslim-Croat regions Confederate States of America declared 1861.
Break-Up of Yugoslavia 1990s “Balkanization”
Former Yugoslavia Today Slovenia 1990 Croatia 1991 Bosnia 1992 Macedonia 1992 Serbia(remained “Yugoslavia” with Montenegro until 2003) Montenegro 2006 Kosovo 2008 Is Vojvodina next? PRISTINA Kosovo
Why ethnic conflict? • Because difference naturally causes conflict? • But difference does not always cause conflict. • Conflicts also erupt between similar peoples!
Northern Ireland (Catholics vs. Protestants) • Same race, language • Different religion (and ethnic group? class?) • Protestant majority for staying in U.K.; Catholic minority for joining Ireland.
Rwanda / Congo (Hutus vs. Tutsis) Same race, language, religion Different ethnic group; one favored by colonialists No major ethnic issues until colonial power entered (Belgians) Genocide against Tutsi minority, 1994 (3 weeks: 100,000+ dead) Rwanda
Congo...Today Congo: The “World War” Nobody Knows About International Business Times (1/2/2012) By Palash R. Ghosh Many people think that World War III has never occurred – but they would be wrong. A third 'World War' did indeed occur and it killed at least 5 million people (mostly from disease and starvation) – some estimated place the death toll much higher. Between 1998 and 2003, an extremely complex and chaotic civil war engulfed the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo) -- a vast, thickly-jungled nation in Central Africa the size of Western Europe. While the estimated 5,000,000 death toll from this war pales in comparison to the 15,000,000 lives lost during World War I, and the 60,000,000 who perished in the Second World War -- the DR Congo inferno was nonetheless was one of the ten deadliest wars in recorded history. http://www.ibtimes.com/articles/275297/20120102/congo-world-war-nobody-knows.htm http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ov6SIYofcdY&feature=related http://topics.edition.cnn.com/topics/democratic_republic_of_the_congo http:// www.raisehopeforcongo.org/content/conflict-minerals-company-rankings
Bosnia (Serbs vs. Muslims vs. Croats) • Same race, same language • Different religion, so different “ethnic” group? • Intermarried, cooperated, 1950s-80s; At war 1990s Muslim and Serb refugees from Sarajevo http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-17636907
Ethnic conflict as a tool to… • Mask economic / colonial hierarchy. • Divert majority citizens • from economic crisis. • Prevent poor of different ethnic groups from uniting (divide and conquer).
Geopolitics of the Middle East Western influence in the Middle East • 1948: Israel (re)created by U.N.* • In a mostly Arabic region, most reject / resent the decision by Core countries to assist in creation of Israel in what they consider their homeland (culturally, historically, religiously) for ~3,000 years • Cultural bias on part of Core countries? * Partition Plan: signifies the birth of what has come to be recognized as continuous trouble for the U.S. (mostly) in the Middle East Palestinian Newspaper
1948: UN Partition Plan • Jewish State • (Israel) • Arab State • (Palestine) • International Zone • (Jerusalem)
Jerusalem: Holy City to Jews, Muslims, and Christians
Palestine: Nation?State?Nation-State?Concept?Occupied Lands?
Palestinians • West Bank • Gaza Strip • Arab (ethnic) territoriality • Palestinians are multi-religious: • - Mostly Muslims but many Christians • Ethnic nationalist movement, but some newer Muslim groups
The Main Issue: • From Palestinian point of view: • Israel is made of land taken from the Arab World • Anyone who supports Israel is part of the problem (Western Countries: ethnocentrism?) • From Israel’s point of view: • Israel is Jewish holy land, rightfully returned • Under constant threat / attack • SOLUTIONS ANYONE?