PLANETS OF OUR SOLAR SYSTEM BY: Geenie Choy 8C
General Information Revolve: The action of a smaller object circling around a larger object. Rotate: The action of an object spinning on its axis. There are 8planets and 5 dwarf planets found. • Their differences: • Inner planets have many • craters due to asteroids and • meteorites. • Outer planets are much • larger and are made of gas • OUTER PLANETS: • Jupiter • Saturn • Uranus • Neptune • INNER PLANETS: • Mercury • Venus • Earth • Mars Orbit: The path which an object (planet, satellites, etc.) follows • 3 REQUIREMENTS: • Must orbit around the Sun • Round due to large mass and gravity • Cleared orbit DWARF PLANETS orbit around the sun and are big enough to be round, but they do not have a cleared orbit. -Pluto -Ceres -Eris
MERCURY Craters The atmosphere contains helium and sodium. So close to the Sun that it has no substantial atmosphere. • Shaping Mercury: • Craters were formed when huge objects hit the surface—impactcratering • Lava erupted from volcanoes and spread across the surface—volcanism • Moving plates in the crust due to constant cooling and contractingon theplanet—tectonicactivity
“Evening Star”--the clouds covering Venus reflect sunlight easily, allowing Venus to be seem extremely bright VENUS The atmosphere contains carbon dioxideandsulfuric acid *acts as a greenhouse—trapsheat this causes Venus to be the hottest planet in the solar system Retrogade rotation: when the planet spins in a clockwise direction on its axis. Since Venus has an opposite rotation than the other planets, the Sun would appear to rise in the west and set in the east. It has a longer day than year because one retrogaderotation takes225 Earth days. This means Venus takes a longer time to spin than revolves around the Sun.
EARTH Atmosphere: They protect us from harmfulsolar radiationby absorbing it, andmeteors. The Earth’s metallic core in the center and its continuous spin on its axis created the magnetic field. 23.5degrees tilt of axis Earth’s satellite is theMoonwhich rotates around it.
MARS Scientists examine meteorites from Mars for proof of ancient bacteria and signs of living things. Primary element: 95% carbon dioxide The iron-rich clay that covers Mars gave the planet its red color. • OLYMPUS MONS: • tallest volcano in the solar system on Mars • peak: 26 km over base • shield volcano=gentle slope • 20 times wider than height • Satelites-Phobos and Deimos • Irregular shape • Believed to be asteroids
JUPITER The poles are flatten and the middle swell out because of the rotation. • ATMOSPHERE: • Hydrogen • Helium • Nitrogen • sulfur THE GREAT/GIANT RED SPOT: A storm that can be seen from space; it was first spotted when scientists discovered Jupiter. Astronomers believe it is caused by a storm-system on Jupiter 50moons and13more unofficial satellites found. Io (one of Jupiter’s satellites) is volcanically active which causes it to have an extremely high tempereture.
SATURN • ATMOSPHERE: • Hyrogen • Helium Scientists think that Saturn’s rings are formed by natural satellites breaking up. • RINGS: • Ice, water, and dust from satellites which broke up near Saturn • Thickness:10-100 meters • Different brightness • Gaps in between some rings, others are braided Saturn could FLOAT due to its extremely low density Seasons last more than 7Earth years!!!
URANUS For known natural satellites, Uranus has 27. UNIQUE due to its 98 degrees tilt this caused Uranus to look like itrotates on its side. ATMOSPHERE: Hydrogen Helium Methane
NEPTUNE • ATMOSPHERE: • Ammonia • Helium • Methane 13known satellites with4circling Neptune inside the rings. • Triton-the largest satellite of Neptune • Made of ice and rock • Believed to be not originally a satellite, but it was forced to orbit around Neptune by Neptune’s gravity. • Why did astronomers thought it was not a satellite? • Retrograde orbit • Density • Composition
PLUTO THREE MOONS: Charon—half of Pluto, orbits close to the dwarf planet Nix—farther away Hydra—farther away Using the spectoscope they found that Pluto has methane frost and Charon has water frost. Charon is extremely large for a moon (half of Pluto). It is also bluer than Pluto.
CERES Ceres became known as an asteroid in 1802. This was because many other objects orbiting between Mars and Jupiter were named as asteroids. Since Ceres also orbits in the same area, it became known as an asteroid, too. 1year =4.6 Earth years Surface is covered with clay, water ice, and carbonates. This helped differentiate Ceres from the other members of the asteroid belt.
Dysnomia ERIS Original name: Xena, referring to the popular television show during the time Eris was found It takes 557years for Eris to make one orbit around the Sun. MOON: Dysnomia—the daughter of Eris, cause of lawlessness It was not named a planet because Eris did not clear its path of orbit, which meant it didn’t meet one of the requirements for a planet.
THE END. All information from: http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/StarChild/solar_system_level2/planets.html