What are primary and secondary sources…. • Primary sources are documents, recordings, or written accounts created at the time being studies – by a credible source: letters, photographs, songs, videos, diaries, interviews(with actual person), excerpts from documents or publications, and even articles of clothing • Secondary sources are accounts of the past created by people writing about events sometime after they actually happened : biographies, plays, books written about a time period, and interviews(with someone having knowledge of a person in history or an event)
Take the Quiz… 1. A biography of the marriage between Bill Clinton and Hillary Clinton. (primary / secondary) 2. Charles Darwin's book on evolution, The Origin of Species. (primary / secondary) 3. Excerpts from the Bill of Rights. (primary / secondary) 4. The autobiography of any person. (primary / secondary) 5. An interview with your grandfather about your great-grandfather's childhood. (primary / secondary) 6. An editorial attacking the current economic policy. (primary / secondary) 7. An interview with a survivor from the Titanic. (primary / secondary) 8. A survey you conducted to see if the majority of students ride the bus. (primary / secondary) 9. A book by a journalist that highlights the major historic events of the 19th century. (primary / secondary)
The Answers…. • Secondary • Primary • Primary • Primary • Secondary • Primary • Primary • Primary • Secondary
Activity….. • Break up into groups of 4 to 5 people • Have one member of each group leave the room • The remaining group members will be participating in the first part of the activity
tHe R seiromem Your
Part Two…. • Distribute index cards and pencils to group members who remained in the room • Allow 1 minute for them to illustrate what they recall from the previous slide • Bring waiting group member back in • Give that member all of the index cards form the rest of the group • Ask that person to use the completed cards of their group members to illustrate accurately what the group viewed on the screen
The Results…. • What did you find? • Could they accurately illustrate what the group had seen? • Does this activity indicate the reliability of some primary sources? • Why?
The Witch Trials…. From June through September of 1692, nineteen men and women, who were all convicted of witchcraft, were taken to Gallows Hill, an area near Salem Village, for hanging. Another man of over eighty years was pressed to death under heavy stones for refusing to submit to a trial on witchcraft charges. Hundreds of others faced accusations of witchcraft; dozens spent months in jail, suffering without trials, until the hysteria that swept through Puritan Massachusetts ended as quickly as it had begun.
Possible Causes of the Hysteria • Strong belief that Satan was acting in the world - disease, natural catastrophes, and bad fortune • A belief that Satan recruited witches and wizards to work for him. • A belief that a person afflicted by witchcraft exhibits certain symptoms. • Wild imaginations! • Confessing "witches" adding credibility to earlier charges. • Old feuds (disputes within congregation, property disputes) between the accusers and the accused spurring charges of witchcraft. • Boredom!
WARRANT FOR THE ARREST OF ELIZABETH PROCTOR AND SARAH CLOYCE (APRIL 4, 1692):Primary Source Salem Aprill. 4'th 1692There Being Complaint this day made (Before us) by captJonat Walcott, and Lt NatheniellIngersull both of Salem Village, in Behalfe of theire Majesties for themselfes and also for severall of their Neighbours Against Sarah Cloyce the wife of peter Cloyce of Salem Village; and Elizabeth Proctor the wife of John Proctor of Salem farmes for high Suspition of Sundry acts of Witchcraft donne or Committed by them upon the bodys of Abigail Williams, and John Indian both of Mr Sam parris his family of Salem Village and mary Walcott daughterof the abovesaid Complainants, And Ann Putnam and Marcy Lewis of the famyly of Thomas Putnam of Salem Village whereby great hurt and dammage hath beenedonne to the Bodys of s'd persons above named therefore Craved Justice. You are therefore in theireMajest's names hereby required to apprehend and bring before us Sarah Cloyce the wife of peter Cloyce of Salem Village and Elizabeth proctor the wife of John Procter of Salem farmes; on MundayMorneing Next being the Eleventh day of this Instant Aprillaboute Eleven of the Clock, at the publike Meeting house in the Towne, in order to theire Examination Relateing to the premesisaboves'd and here of you are. not to faile Dated Salem Aprill 8'th 1692 To George Herick Marshall of the County of essex
RECORDS OF THE TRIAL AND EXECUTION OF SARAH GOOD, 1692(Summary of Evidence v. Sarah Good)Primary Source Titabes Confession & Examinaconag't. her selfe & Sarah good abstracted Charges Sarah Good to hurt the Children & would have had her done it 5. were with her last night & would have. had her hurt the Children w'ch she refused & that Good was one of them Good with others are very strong & pull her with them to Mr. putnams & make her hurt the Child. Good rode with her upon Apoole behind her, takeing hold of one another doth not know how they goe for she never sees trees nor path but are presently th - good [ther] tell her she must kill some body with a knife & would have had her killed Tho: putnams Child last night the Child at the same time afirmed she would have had her cutt of her own head if not Titabe would doe it & complained of a knife cutting her Good came to her last night when her Mr. was at prayer & would not let her hear hath one yellow bird & stopped her Eares in prayer time, the yellow bird hath been seen by the Children & Titubee saw it suck Good between the forefinger & long finger upon the right hand Saw Good [ther] practice witchcraft. Saw Good have a Catt besides the bird & a thing all over hair [ther] Sarah Good appeared like a wolfe to Hubbard going to proctors & saw it sent by Good to Hubbard good [ther] hurt the Children again & the Children affirme the same Hubbard knew th[em] not being blinded by them & was once or twice taken dumb herslefe i:e: Titube Good cause her to pinch the Children in their own persons Saw Goods name in the booke, & the devell told her they made these marks & said to her she made thermarke & it was the same day she went to prison Good [ther] came to ride abroad with her & the man shewed her Goods mark in the book Good [ther] pinched her on the leggs & being searched found it soe after confession Nota S. G. mumbled when she went away from MrParrass & the children after hurt Dorothy Goods Charge ag't. her mother Sarah Good. That she had three birds one black, one yellow & that these birds hurt the Children & afflicted persons.
Excerpt from letter of Gov. William Phips (1692-1693)Primary Source When I first arrived I found this province miserably harrassed with a most Horrible witchcraft or Possession of Devills which had broke in upon severall Townes, some score of poor people were taken with preternaturall torments some scalded with brimstone some had pins stuck in their flesh others hurried into the fire and water and some dragged out of their houses and carried over the tops of trees and hills for many Miles together; it hath been represented to mee much like that of Sweden about thirty years agoe, and there were many committed to prision upon suspicion of Whichcraft before my arrivall.
I Walk in Dread – The Diary of Deliverance Trembley, Witness to the Salem Witch TrialsSecondary Source Excerpt Tuesday ye 1st of March, 1692 The four afflictred girls…were brought to the front of the room, screeching and crying out as they laid their eyes on the prisoner. Their fear flooded the room….. AuthorLisa Rowe Fraustino admits to always being fascinated with the work of the super-natural. She says, “sifting through 300 years of facts and fiction turned out to be a formidable task….so many conflicting stories.”
In Your Opinion…. • In this circumstance, which source provides you with more information regarding the witch trials? • Is there a “best” type of source? • The “best” source for your purpose depends on the reliability of the source. • A well balanced project will incorporate various sources – both primary and secondary.
The DeadNineteen accused witches were hanged on Gallows Hill in 1692: Giles Corey An accused witch (or wizard, as men were called) who was pressed to death between large stones when he refused to plead guilty or not guilty Other accused witches died in prison: Sarah Osborn Roger Toothaker Lyndia Dustin Ann Foster (As many as thirteen others may have died in prison – sources are conflicting) June 10Bridget BishopJuly 19Rebecca NurseSarah GoodSusannah MartinElizabeth HoweSarah WildesAugust 19George BurroughsMartha CarrierJohn WillardGeorge Jacobs, Sr.John ProctorSeptember 22Martha CoreyMary EasteyAnn PudeatorAlice ParkerMary ParkerWilmottReddMargaret ScottSamuel Wardwell