Plant Growth Requirements • In order to grow well, plants must have basic needs met. These are: • Proper temperature • Light quality, intensity, & duration • Moisture • Carbon dioxide (CO2) • Sixteen essential nutrients • Oxygen for respiration
Temperature • Photosynthesis increases as the temperature increases. • The plant’s uptake of minerals and water are effected by temperature. • Plants have an optimum temperature for growth and development.
Temperature, (cont’d.) • Plants have a minimum temperature below which they cannot live. • High temperatures may dry out plants. • Plants should be chosen for the climatic conditions of the area.
Light Quality: Plants require white light or sunlight. Chlorophyll absorbs red and blue light and reflects green light. Intensity: Intense light provides sufficient energy for photosynthesis to occur.
Light (cont’d.) Duration: Different plants require different exposure times to light in order to be productive. Photoperiod is the length of time that the plant needs light.
Moisture • Soil moisture carries minerals and nutrients from the soil into the plant via the xylem. • Water is used in chemical reactions such as photosynthesis. • Turgor is the pressure which allows the plant to stand erect, is provided by water within the cell.
Moisture (cont’d.) • Water cools the plant via transpiration. • Water moves (translocates) products that are produced by photosynthesis from the leaves to the rest of the plant via the phloem.
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) • Carbon Dioxide is absorbed through the stomata. • It is used in photosynthesis to produce sugars for the plant.
Primary Nitrogen (N) Potassium (K) Phosphorus (P) Secondary Calcium (Ca) Sulphur (S) Magnesium (Mg) Essential Nutrients
Trace Elements Manganese (Mn) Iron (Fe) Copper (Cu) Chlorine (Cl) Boron (B) Molybdenum (Mo) Atmospheric Nutrients Carbon (C) Hydrogen (H) Oxygen (O) Essential Nutrients