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Plant Growth

Plant Growth

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Plant Growth

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  1. Plant Growth AP Biology Unit 5

  2. Plant Growth • Plant growth occurs at specific tissues called meristems • Apical Meristem • Lateral Meristems

  3. Plant Growth • Plants can go through two different types of growth • Primary Growth- growth in length • Secondary Growth- growth in width

  4. Primary Growth- in Roots • In roots, primary growth occurs in 3 different zones • Zone of Cell Division (contains root apical meristem) • Zone of Elongation • Zone of Maturation

  5. Zone of Cell Division • Lots of mitosis occurring in the cells here • Contains the newest cells (newly divided)

  6. Zone of Elongation • Cells get longer to push the root tip into the soil • Cells start developing their specialized functions

  7. Zone of Maturation • Cells become fully specialized • Considered mature cells

  8. Root Cap • Root cap protects the root apical meristem as root pushes through the soil • Like a helmet for the root cells

  9. Primary Growth- Stems • Growth occurs at the shoot apical meristems • Shoot apical meristems are located at the tips of buds • Plants grow from the top, not the bottom of the stem

  10. Secondary Growth • Growth in width of stems and roots • Degree of secondary growth varies– some plants barely have any, others have extensive secondary growth. • Results in the formation of wood and bark • Results from activity in the lateral meristems • Vascular Cambium • Cork Cambium

  11. Vascular Cambium • Divides into • Secondary Xylem • On the side closer to the center of the stem/root • Secondary Phloem • On the side closer to the outside of the stem/root • As the vascular cambium divides, it continues to push older cells farther away.

  12. Cork Cambium • As the secondary phloem grows, it breaks the outer layer of the stems and root (epidermis) • Secondary phloem on the very outside becomes cork cambium • Cork cambium grows into cork • Cork cells contain suberin to protect from water loss, physical damage and harmful substances.

  13. Question… • Where is the oldest part of a tree? • The very center – oldest xylem that has been pushed all the way in • Outer layers keep flaking off

  14. Types of wood • Heartwood • Older secondary xylem • Cells get clogged  stop conducting water • Darker in color • Sapwood • Newer secondary xylem • Still actively conducting water (and minerals) • Lighter in color

  15. Annual Rings in Wood • The age of a tree can be determined by looking at the number of rings that it has. • Wood = secondary xylem • What forms the rings? • Spring: water most available, water transport cells are large and have thin walls • Summer: less water available, water transport cells have thicker walls and are darker