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Urban Patterns

Urban Patterns

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Urban Patterns

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  1. Urban Patterns Chapter 13

  2. Urbanization • Def.- the process by which the pop. of cities grows • Made up of 2 factors • An increase in the # of people living in cities • An increase in the % of people living in cities • 2 factors occur for diff. reasons and have diff. global distributions

  3. continued • In 1800, only 3% of World pop. lived in cities and Beijing was the only city with more than 1 million • Today ½ of pop. lives in cities and more than 400 cities have at least 1 million people

  4. Increasing Percentage of People in Cities • 3% in 1800 • 6% in 1850 • 14% in 1900 • 30% in 1950 • 47% in 2000 • 2008 urban % surpassed rural for first time in human history

  5. continued • In MDCs, ¾ live in cities • In LDCs, 2/5 live in cities • Exception is in Latin America—closely resembles pattern of MDCs • Higher % in MDCs due to industrial revolution in 19th Century and growth of service industries in the 20th

  6. continued • In MDCs the need for fewer farm workers has pushed people to cities to find work • Lure of factory jobs and now service jobs has pulled them into urban areas • Led to increase in % of people living in urban areas and a decrease in % of people living in rural areas—Duh!

  7. Continued • Process of urbanization in MDCs began around 1800 and has pretty much ended • The % living in urban area can’t increase much more • People who wanted to do it already have • MDCs are considered fully urbanized

  8. continued • In LDCs the % has risen rapidly in recent years • People come looking for manufacturing or service jobs due to declining farming opportunities • Urban jobs are not assured in LDCs to those who migrate—stage 2 Demographic transition model—very high population growth

  9. 10 largest cities in the World According to your text

  10. Buenos Aires, Argentina Buenos Aires, Argentina

  11. Delhi, India

  12. Dhaka, Bangladesh

  13. Jakarta, Indonesia

  14. Kolkata, India

  15. Mexico City, Mexico

  16. Mumbai, India

  17. New York City, United States

  18. Sao Paulo, Brazil

  19. Tokyo, Japan

  20. Increasing # of People in Cities • 8 of 10 largest cities are in LDCs • NY and Tokyo are the only exceptions • In 1900, 6 would have been in Europe and three in the US

  21. continued • Rapid growth of cities in LDCs not because of industrialization or an improved level of development • ½ comes from migration for countryside for job opportunities that may not even exist • ½ comes from high natural increase rates • In African cities, natural increase accounts for 3/4

  22. Defining Urban Settlements • Not an easy thing today • Top ten lists vary depending on the publication because of differing definitions of the word urban • 2 important factors in distinguishing between urban and rural—social factors and physical factors

  23. Social Differences Between Urban and Rural • Louis Wirth 1930s • Different way of life for urban dwellers • Defined city as a permanent settlement with 3 characteristics • Large size • High pop. density • Socially heterogeneous people

  24. Large size • People know only a small % of pop. • People have specific roles and most people you do know is according to those roles • Ex. I’m your teacher • Leads to a different set of social relationships

  25. High Density • Leads to specialization • Each person in urban area has a specified role that allows the complex urban structure to function smoothly • Leads to competition of limited resources for survival

  26. Social Heterogeneity • Larger the settlement, the greater the variety of people • More freedom to pursue “different” things • Unusual jobs, homosexuality, cultural interests • More accepted in large urban areas • Despite freedom, many feel lonely or isolated in urban settlements • Surrounded by indifferent people

  27. Wirth Definition Today • Really only applies to LDCs • Everyone in MDCs lives urban lifestyles • Urban jobs, cars, telephones, TV are available to all in MDCs

  28. Physical Definitions of Urban Settlements • Used to be easy—cities were walled • Today there are 3 ways to physically define an urban settlement • By legal boundary • As a continuously built-up area • As a functional area

  29. Legal Definition of a City • City- an urban settlement that has been legally incorporated into an independent, self-governing unit • Has locally elected officials, ability to raise taxes, and provides certain services to residents • Boundaries of city are the limit to the local gov. authority • In the US, a city surrounded by suburbs is often called a central city

  30. Urbanized Area • In the US, the central city and surrounding suburbs are called an urbanized area • Pop. Density must exceed 1000 per sq. mile • 70% of US residents live in an urbanized area • 30% in central cities and 40% in suburbs • Difficult to work with this definition, because few statistics are available for them

  31. Metropolitan Statistical Area • Used because it more fully reflects the influence of an urban settlement beyond its legal boundaries • Watching TV stations, reading newspapers, supporting sports teams, etc. • Created by US Census Bureau to measure functional area of a city

  32. continued • Metropolitan Statistical areas include the following: • An urbanized area with pop. of at least 50,000 • The county within which the city is located • Adjacent counties with high pop. Density and a large % of residents working in the central city’s county

  33. continued • 362 MSAs in the US in 2003—83% of pop. • MSAs are not perfect analysis tools • Also include extensive land area that isn’t urban

  34. continued • Micropolitan statistical area- an urbanized area of b/w 10,000 and 50,000 residents, the county in which it is found, and adjacent counties tied to the city • 560 in 2003—10% of pop • Mostly in area of South and West that used to be rural

  35. Overlapping Metropolitan Areas • Sometimes MSAs overlap • A county in between might send large # of residents to work in both areas • In the NE US, MSAs are so close together they now form one continuous urban complex • Called Megalopolis– Boston to DC • Some call Boswash or Bosnywash

  36. continued • Other continuous urban complex exist as well • Between Chicago and Milwaukee to Pittsburgh • Los Angeles to Tijuana

  37. Three Models of Urban Structure • Created to help explain where different types of people tend to live in an urban area • All three were created using Chicago as the model • Concentric Zone Model • Sector Model • Multiple Nuclei Model

  38. Concentric Zone Model • Created 1923– Sociologist E. W. Burgess • Def.- a model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings

  39. continued • 5 zones • CBD – central business district • Innermost ring- concentration of non-residential activities • Zone in Transition • Industry and poorer-quality housing • Often subdivided apartment houses • Often filled by immigrants

  40. continued • Zone of Working Class Homes • Modest older houses occupied by stable families • Zone of Middle Class Homes • Newer and more spacious homes • Commuter’s Zone • Area of people who don’t live in city where they work

  41. Concentric Zone Model- Burgess

  42. Sector Model • Created in 1939 by economist Homer Hoyt • Def. – a model of internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the CBD • Certain areas of cities are more attractive for various activities • Due to chance or environmental factors originally

  43. continued • As city grows, activities spread outward in wedges/sectors from the center • Once a high rent housing district is established, the more expensive new housing grows on the outer edge of that sector • Best housing found in a corridor extending from downtown to outer edge of city • Industrial and retail activities develop in other sectors—usually along good transportation lines

  44. Sector Model - Hoyt

  45. Multiple Nuclei Model • Created in 1945 by geographers C. D. Harris and E. L. Ullman • Def.- a model of internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities • Cities are complex and include more than one center around which activities revolve • Ex. Ports, neighborhood business centers, universities, airports, parks

  46. continued • Some activities are attracted to particular nodes, whereas others try to avoid them • Bookstores and pizza joints tend to cluster around Universities • Hotels and warehouses around airports • High-class housing rarely in same neighborhood as manufacturing

  47. Multiple Nuclei ModelHarris and Ullman