Replication Cell Division DNA/RNA/Protein Synthesis All illustrations in this presentation were obtained from Google.com
Who tried to find the genetic material but failed? Instead he found TRANSFORMATION. This scientist injected mice with heat killed disease bacteria and live good bacteria and the mice died of pneumonia.
TRANSFORMATION Griffith“F” for failing to find genetic material!F for finding: He found that good bacteria are changed into bad bacteria with transfer of some “factor.”
Who actually found DNA is the “factor” that caused good bacteria to change into bad bacteria?
Avery Remember: Avery got an “A” for finding DNA; the factor that causes transformation
Who used X-rays to determine what DNA really looked like?Hint: This scientist died from too much radiation
Rosalind Franklin You may see this picture on the SOL!
Who discovered the shape of the DNA molecule and was awarded the Nobel Prize?
Capsid (protein coat of virus) Who used radioactive bacteriophages (viruses) to confirm the genetic material being transferred was DNA? Bacteriophage (Virus) Bacteria Cell
Hershey & ChaseBacteriophages chase after bacteria to inject their DNA for infection and replication. DNA Real Picture of a Bacteriophage
Who found: % of Adenine = % Thymine % Cytosine = % Guanine What is this rule called?
CHARGAFF Chargoff’s Rule of BASE PAIRING!
A, T, C, G Which ones are purines? Which are pyrimidines?
A, T, C, G Hint: You “Pee Urine” (purine) in an outhouse attached to the main house House Hint: Cystine and Thymine have “y” in their names like Pyrimidine Out-house
What is the shape of the DNA molecule called? DOUBLE HELIX 2 sides like a ladder
What is the difference between the DNA in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes?
What is the difference between the DNA in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes? DNA in a Prokaryote is a long loop found in the cytoplasm DNA in a Eukaryote are individual chromosomes in the nucleus
What are the specific structures that carry the genetic code found in the nucleus?
Name the 3 parts of a DNA nucleotide (building block = monomer) 1 2 3
1. Phosphate Group 2. 5-Carbon Sugar (Deoxyribose)3. Nitrogen Base (A, T, C, or G) 1
Must have 2 identical strands of DNA Cell Division!
List the steps of DNA replication: Enzyme (Helicase) unzips DNA to open up DNA Polymerase (enzyme) attaches to the DNA and adds complimentary bases (A,T,C,G) to make new sides of DNA Two identical strands of DNA are created for cell division (S phase) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zdDkiRw1PdU&list=PL11819901C1D3513D Hyperlink to video if access to internet
An original strand of DNA has these nitrogen basesC G G T A T G A T1. What are the complimentary bases for the new DNA strand after replication?2. What bond holds the nitrogen bases together to form the “steps of the ladder”?
C G G T A T G A T original strand l l l l l l l l l G C C A T A C T A new strand Hydrogen Bonds
List 3 Similarities and 3 Differences DNA RNA Similarities Both are Nucleic Acids Sugar Phosphate Backbones A, C, G Nitrogen Bases Differences Deoxyribose Sugar Ribose Sugar Thymine Uracil Double Helix Single Strand
List Similarities and Differences DNA RNA Similarities Both are Nucleic Acids Sugar - Phosphate Backbones A, C, G nitrogen Bases Differences Deoxyribose Sugar Ribose Sugar Thymine base Uracil base Double Helix Single Strand
Strawberry DNA Extraction Lab Why did we use… Soap? Salt? Meat tenderizer? Cold alcohol?
Strawberry DNA Extraction Lab Why did we use… Soap? Breaks down lipid cell and nuclear membranes Salt? Neutralizes + and - charges Meat tenderizer? Breaks down the protein (Histones) wrapped around DNA Cold alcohol? Precipitates out DNA
RNA Hint: RNA loves “U”
mRNA- messenger RNA - brings genetic code for proteins out of DNA to ribosome (like a recipe)tRNA – transfer RNA - brings amino acids to ribosomes (like a sous chef bringing ingredients to chef)rRNA – ribosomal RNA- (ribosome) makes the protein (like the chef) t
RNA What does RNA stand for?