OSHA Crane RuleCFR 1926 Subpart CC Brian Gawlik Chicagoland Construction Safety Council 4100 Madison St, Hillside, IL 60162
Crane Accidents / Deaths 2000 - 2009 • Year Accident Death • 2000 184 74 • 2001 161 107 • 2002 171 96 • 2003 269 138 • 2004 287 142 • 2005 231 127 • 2006 314 109 • 2007 347 176 • 2008 401 217 • 2009 303 197
Crane Fatalities (Cause) • Power line contact was by far the most common cause of accidents, accounting for 39 percent of all fatalities. 90/10 Other major causes included: • Assembly/Dismantling (12 percent) • Boom Buckling (8 percent) • Rigging Failure (7 percent) • Upset/Overturn (7 percent).
Effective Date • The U.S. Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) issued a new rule addressing the use of cranes and derricks in construction. The new rule, which replaces a standard that was established in 1971, will go into effect on November 8, 2010.
Equipment Covered1926.1400(a) • This standard will apply to power-operated equipment used in construction that can: • Hoist, lower and horizontally move a suspended load over 2,000 pounds (1 ton). NC 1926.1400
Covered Under Subpart CC Knuckle-boom cranes Crawler cranes
Covered Under Subpart CC Locomotive cranes Wheel-mounted cranes
Covered Under Subpart CC Rough-terrain cranes Commercial truck-mounted
Covered Under Subpart CC Boom truck cranes Carrydeck cranes
Covered Under Subpart CC Cranes on a monorail Tower cranes
Covered Under Subpart CC Pedestal cranes Overhead & Gantry cranes
Attachmentson Included Equipment • Hooks, • Magnets, • Grapples,
Attachmentson Included Equipment • Clamshell buckets, • Orange peel buckets,
Attachmentson Included Equipment • Concrete buckets, • Drag lines,
Attachmentson Included Equipment • Personnel platforms, • Augers or drills • Pile driving equipment.
Excluded Equipment1926.1400(c) • Manually powered hoisting devices - come-a-longs • Backhoes/excavators, concrete pumps, power shovels • Vehicle mounted aerial device for lifting personnel and self propelled elevated work platform (i.e. scissor & aerial lifts) • Forklifts, including all-terrain, dedicated drill rigs • Knuckle boom trucks for placing material on ground only without arranging in a sequence. 1926.1400 (c)(1) – (15)
Excluded Equipment Power shovels Excavators This machinery is also excluded when used with chains, slings or other rigging to lift suspended load
Excluded Equipment Wheel loaders Backhoes This machinery is also excluded when used with chains, slings or other rigging to lift suspended load
Excluded Equipment Loader backhoes Track loaders This machinery is also excluded when used with chains, slings or other rigging to lift suspended load
Excluded Equipment Automotive wreckers Tow trucks When used to clear wrecks and haul vehicles
Excluded Equipment Stacker cranes Powered industrial trucks Except when configured to hoist and lower (by means of a winch or hook) and horizontally move a suspended load.
Material Delivery (Excluded) Articulating/Knuckle-boom crane Off loading to the ground (Excluded) Sheet goods such as, but not limited to: Plywood, Sheet rockRoof shingles, Bags or cement
Material Delivery (Included) Articulating/Knuckle-boom crane • Off loading prefabricated structural components (Exclusion do not apply) to the following: (Included but are not limited to) • Precast Concrete members or panels • Roof Trusses (Wood, Cold Formed Metal, Steel or other material) • Floor , Roof or Wall Panels • Roof structures • Steel Joists • Beams • Columns • Steel Decking
Definitions1926.1401 • No more “Should” or “Shall” • Only “Must” used in this subpart over 800 times • A/D Director (CP & QP) • Dedicated Spotter (QSP) • Qualified Rigger (QP) • (+) Over 100 Other Definitions 1926.1401
Ground Conditions1926.1402 Controlling entity: • Provide adequate conditions • Slope, compaction & firmness • Sufficient to support crane (in conjunction with blocking, mats, etc.) • Inform user and equipment operator of known underground hazards (voids, utilities, etc.) from • drawings, • as built drawings, • or soil analysis. 1926.1402
Erecting, Dismantling, & Assembly of Crane Requireseither: • Following manufacturer's procedures (including a review of the manufacturer's instructions before assembly and disassembly of a crane), or • Following employer's procedures that are developed and certified in writing by a qualified person. 1926.1403-1926.1407
Assembly / Disassembly1926.1403-1406 General requirements • A/D supervisor = “competent & qualified person(s)” • A/D supervisor must: • Understand A/D procedures • Review procedures (unless A/D supervisor has used them before) • Ensure that the crew members understand their tasks, hazards, and hazardous position • Follow manufacturer’s limitations • When using outriggers - fully extended or deployed per the load chart • ALL rigging preformed by a Qualified Rigger 1926.1403 -1406
1926.1407 Power Line Safety (up to 350 kV) – A/D Could You Get Within 20 Feet of Power Line? Option #1 Deenergize & Ground YES NO No Further Action Encroachment /Electrocution Prevention Measures • Planning Meeting • If tag lines usedNon-conductive PLUS (choose One) • Dedicated Spotter, proximity alarm,warning device, range limiter, or elevated warning line, barricade or line of signs Option #2 20 Foot Clearance Option # 3 Ask Utility for Voltage and Use Table A (with minimum clearance distance)
Hazard Assessments and Precautions Inside the Work Zone 1926.1408 • Identify the work zone by either: • Demarcating boundaries and prohibiting the operator from operating the equipment past those boundaries, (such as with flags, range limiter, or range control warning device) • or
Hazard Assessments and Precautions Inside the Work Zone • Identify the work zone by: • Defining the work zone as the area 360 degrees around the equipment, up to the equipment’s maximum working radius
1926.1408 Power Line Safety (up to 350 kV) – EO Could You Get Within 20 Feet of Power Line? YES NO Option #1 Deenergize & Ground No Further Action Encroachment /Electrocution Prevention Measures • Planning Meeting • If tag lines usedNon-conductive • Option # 2: Warning line, barricade, or line of signs at 20’ • Option # 3: Warning line, barricade or line of signs at minimum approach distance in Table A • (If the warning lines are not visible to the operator a spotter is required) PLUS (choose One) • Proximity alarm, Dedicated Spotter, warning device, range limiter, or insulating link Option #2 20 Foot Clearance Option # 3 Ask Utility for Voltage and Use Table A (with minimum clearance distance)
1926.1408 Power Line Safety (Over to 350 kV) – EO Could You Get Within 50 Feet of Power Line? YES NO Option #1 Deenergize & Ground No Further Action Encroachment /Electrocution Prevention Measures • Planning Meeting • If tag lines usedNon-conductive • Option # 2: Warning line, barricade, or line of signs at 50’ • Option # 3: Warning line, barricade or line of signs at minimum approach distance in Table A • (If the warning lines are not visible to the operator a spotter is required) PLUS (choose One) • Proximity alarm, Dedicated Spotter, warning device, range limiter, or insulating link Option #2 50 Foot Clearance Option # 3 Ask Utility for Voltage and Use Table A (with minimum clearance distance)
1926.1410 Power Line Safety (all voltages)Equipment Operations Closer Than Table A Zone Intentionally Working Closer Than Table A Zone Procedures that must be covered during the planning meeting Must Show: Staying Outside Zone is Infeasible Infeasible to Deenergize and Ground or relocate At A Min. - All of the Following Are Required: • PL owner or RPE sets min approach distance • Planning meeting – procedures • Deactivate automatic re-energizer • Dedicated Spotter • Elevated warning line or barricade • Insulating link, or Guarded – (Example • of Guarded: Insulated gloves) • Non-conductive rigging • Range limiter (if equipped) • Non-conductive tag line (if used) • Barricades 10 feet from equipment • Limit access to essential employees • Ground crane • Insulating line hose or cover-up • PL owner or RPE, EO & crew to review the plan • PL owner or RPE & employers shall select a plan director • Assess the plan during its use • Must comply w/manufactures guidelines (1415-1416) • Train the operator and crew according to 1408(g), 1430(g)
Inspections1926.1412 • Modified equipment • Inspected by a qualified person after such modifications/additions have been completed, prior to initial use. • Repaired/adjusted equipment • That relates to safe operation • Inspected by a qualified person after such a repair or adjustment has been completed, prior to initial use 1926.1412 (a) (b)
Inspections1926.1412 • Post-assembly • Upon completion of assembly • Inspected by a qualified person to assure that it is configured in accordance with manufacturer equipment criteria • Each shift • Competent person must begin a visual inspection prior to each shift • Start before the shift starts and complete before or during the shift 1926.1412 (c) (d)
Shift Inspection 14 Pt1926.1412 • Control mechanisms for maladjustment • Control & drive mechanisms for apparent wear • Air and hydraulic lines • Hydraulic system levels • Hooks & latches • Wire rope reeving • Wire rope • Electrical apparatus • Tires • Ground conditions • Level within tolerance • Operator cab window • Rails (Rail mounted towers) • Safety devices & operational aids • Safety Devices (7) • Operational Aids (8) • Category I (3) • Category II (5) 1926.1412(d)
Safety Devices / Operational Aids1926.1415 & 1416 • Crane level indicator • Boom Stops • Jib Stops • Foot Pedal Brakes • Hydraulic Outrigger / Stabilizer Jacks • Horn • Boom Hoist Limiting Device • Luffing Jib Limiting Device • Anti Two-Blocking • Boom Angle/Radius Indicator • Jib Angle Indicator • Boom Length Indicator • Load Weighting / Similar Devices • Hoist Drum Rotation Indicator • Outrigger/stabilizer Position • Hoist Drum Rotation Indicator Safety Devices Operational Aid (Category I) Operational Aid (Category II) November 8th, 2011 Manufacturer Requirements 1926.1415 - 1416
Inspections1926.1412 • Monthly • Same as shift inspection • Documented • Items checked and the results of the inspection noted • Name and signature of the person who conducted the inspection and the date • Document must be retained for a minimum of three months 1926.1412 (e)
Inspections1926.1412 Annual / Comprehensive • At least every 12 months • The equipment must be inspected by a qualified person. • Disassembly is required, as necessary, to complete the inspection. • The equipment must be inspected for all of the following: 1926.1412 (f) for ALL Cranes - PLUS 1926.1435 requirements for Tower Cranes
Annual Inspection1926.1412 • Conducted by a Qualified Person • Documentation • Maintained, and retained for a minimum of 12 months, by the employer that conducts the inspection • Items checked and the results of the inspection noted • Name and signature of the person who conducted the inspection and the date 1926.1412 (f)
Wire Rope Inspection1926.1413 • Shift Inspection by CP (Visual) • Apparent Deficiencies (Running & Standing) • Category I (Significant distortion, corrosion, kinks…) • Category II (Visible broken wires) • Category III (Broken strand) • Monthly Inspection by CP (Documented) • Must include items noted in the shift inspection and any items identified in the annual inspection. • Annual Inspection (Inspected by a QP every 12 months) 1926.1413
Fall Protection1926.1423 Boom walkways • Manufactured after Nov 8, 2011 with lattice booms must be equipped with walkways on the boom(s) if the vertical profile of the boom (from cord centerline to cord centerline) is 6 or more feet. • Walkways must be at least 12 inches wide. 1926.1423
Fall Protection • Non-assembly/disassembly • Ensure the use of fall protection equipment for employees who are on a walking/working surface with an unprotected side or edge more than 6 feet above a lower level • Assembly/disassembly • Ensure the use of fall protection equipment for employees who are on a walking/ working surface with an unprotected side or edge more than 15 feet above a lower level 1926.1423
Struck-By &Crush/Pinch Points1926.1424 • (2) To prevent employees from entering these hazard areas, the employer must: • (i) Train each employee assigned to work on or near the equipment (‘‘authorized personnel’’) in how to recognize: • struck-by and • pinch/crush hazard areas posed by • the rotating superstructure.
Operator Qualification/Certification • November 8, 2010: State or local license required if (1) working within a state or locality that has licensing requirements and (2) the licensing program meets the licensing and certification criteria listed in subpart CC. • November 8, 2010-November 10, 2014: Employer must ensure that all operators are competent to operate the equipment safely and are trained and evaluated on that training before operating the equipment. • November 10, 2014: All operators must be certified or qualified.