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Marine Vertebrates: Fishes (Part 1) PowerPoint Presentation
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Marine Vertebrates: Fishes (Part 1)

Marine Vertebrates: Fishes (Part 1)

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Marine Vertebrates: Fishes (Part 1)

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  1. Marine Vertebrates: Fishes (Part 1)

  2. Chordates • Common features of all chordates: • Dorsal (back) hollow nerve cord • Notochord (flexible support rod, becomes backbone in vertebrates) • Gill slits in the pharynx • Post-anal tail • Ventral heart

  3. Phylum Chordata Subphylum Urochordata (larva) Subphylum Vertebrata (embryo) Subphylum Cephalochordata (adult)

  4. Fishes • Phylum Chordata • Subphylum Vertebrata • 3 Classes: • Class Agnatha (jawless fishes) • Class Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes) • Class Osteichthyes (bony fishes)

  5. Fishes

  6. Fishes • Class Agnatha (jawless fishes) • Hagfishes (slime eels, not true eels) • Lampreys (mostly freshwater) • Most primative fishes • Lack: jaws, paired fins, scales • Round mouth, teeth, feed by suction NOAA USGS

  7. Fishes • Class Agnatha (jawless fishes) • Not true vertebrates? • Notochord skeleton (no vertebrae) • Cartilage skull Hagfish Lamprey green = notochord blue = cartilage Shark http://tolweb.org/tree/ToLimages/craniata.gif

  8. Agnatha • Hagfish • Bore or burrow head first, gills farther from head • Slime glands • Sea Lampreys • Attach and suck blood from other fishes • Breed in freshwater, move to sea as adults

  9. Hagfish • Slime as defense mechanism • Tie themselves in knots to rid excess slime • “Eelskin leather” not really from eels, but from hagfish http://vivaldi.zool.gu.se/Fiskfysiologi_2001/Course_material/Introduction_fish_evolution/Images/Hagfish_slime.jpg

  10. Fishes • Class Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes) • Chimaeras (ratfishes) • Sharks, rays, skates • Vertebra, skeleton of cartilage • Placoid scales (like sandpaper) • Ventral mouth under head

  11. Chimaeras • Subclass Holocephali • Called ratfishes, rabbitfishes, ghost sharks • Only one pair external gill slits • Almost no scales • Poisonous spine on first dorsal fin for defense

  12. Chimaeras • Mostly deep sea • Feed on bottom (crustaceans, molluscs) NOAA http://img.geo.de/div/image/59517/langnasenchimaere-popup.jpg http://www.elasmodiver.com/Sharkive%20images/Spotted%20ratfish%20028.jpg

  13. Sharks • Subclass Elasmobranchii • Heterocercal tail (caudal fin) • 5-7 pairs of gill slits • 2 dorsal fins, 2 pectoral fins “dermal denticles”

  14. Sharks Relative sizes of sharks

  15. Sharks • Largest species: • Whale sharks (up to 60 ft) • Basking sharks (up to 50 ft) • Filter feeders (eat plankton) Whale (Rhincodon typus) Basking (Cetorhinus maximus)

  16. Sharks • Jaws! • Powerful jaws • Rows of replacable teeth Sand tiger (Odontaspis taurus) http://www.evolutionnyc.com//ImgUpload/P_455917_964647.jpg

  17. Sharks Blue (Prionace glauca) Blacktip (Carcharhinus limbatus) Shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus) Great white (Carcharodon carcharias) http://www.akvariumas.lt/naujienos/prionace_glauca.jpg http://www.bite-back.com/images/mako%20shark.jpg http://www.elasmodiver.com/Sharkive%20images/Great-White-Shark-002.jpg

  18. Sharks Scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini) Bonnethead Great hammerhead javascript:popUp('/_n/s/viewer/index.asp?id=373&pic=_05/Sphyrna_tiburo1.jpg') http://www.divemagazine.co.uk/news/images/2005-gr8hammerhead1.jpg

  19. Sharks Thresher shark (Alopias vulpinus) Sandbar, brown shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus) Porbeagle (Lamna nasus) Greenland shark http://www.malapascua-diving.com/Images/Large/Fish/thresher.04.jpg http://www.elasmodiver.com/Sharkive%20images/Sandbar-Shark-001.jpg http://www.njscuba.net/images-uw/sharks/porbeagle.jpg http://dsc.discovery.com/sharks/shark-types/greenland-shark.jpg

  20. Sharks Nurse Spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) Leopard Tasseled wobbegong http://www.elasmodiver.com/Sharkive%20images/Nurse-shark004.jpg http://www.elasmodiver.com/Sharkive%20images/Spiny%20dogfish%20059.jpg http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tasseled_wobbegong_shark.jpg http://www.cabrilloaq.org/images/leopardshark.jpg

  21. Sharks Cookie cutter shark Megamouth Goblin shark http://australianmuseum.net.au/Uploads/Images/3149/Isistius%20plutodus%20I-28924-0.jpg http://science.discovery.com/tv/goblin-shark/images/goblin-shark-250.jpg http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/gallery/descript/CookiecutterShark/cookiecuttersharkbite_profile.jpg

  22. Sharks Pygmy Dwarf lantern shark • up to 10 inches • meso- and bathypelagic • up to 7 inches • mesopelagic http://amonline.net.au/fishes/fishfacts/images/saliae2.jpg http://www.sharkmans-world.com/images/species/etmopterus_perryi.jpg

  23. Sharks It’s not safe to go in the... river? 1916 – 2 shark attacks in Matawan Creek, NJ 1.5 miles upstream from bay, 12 miles from ocean Bull (Carcharhinus leucas) http://www.njscuba.net/biology/images/matawan_creek_aerial.jpg

  24. Sharks It’s not safe to be out of the water? http://www.njscuba.net/images-uw/sharks/shortfin_mako_jump.jpg http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/11/photogalleries/sharks1/ http://www.newenglandsharks.com/thresher%20jumping%20leonard.jpg

  25. Rays and Skates • Subclass Elasmobranchii • Flat body • Pectoral fins like wings • 5 pairs of gill slits, underside

  26. Rays Pelagic varieties Manta ray Spotted eagle ray http://www.jochenlenzdive.de/scubatech/images/stories/divingongrenada/scubatech%20dive%20center%20grenada%20eagle%20rays%20bianca%20c%20scuba%20diving%20in%20grenada%20dive%20grenada%20dive%20center%20grenada%20tauchbasis%20grenada%20%20tauchshop%20grenada%20tauchen%20grenada%20plonger%20a%20grenade.jpg http://www.elasmodiver.com/Sharkive%20images/Manta-ray-14.jpg

  27. Rays Yellow stingray Roughtail stingray (Dasyatis centroura) Benthic varieties http://www.elasmodiver.com/images/Roughtail-stingray-02.jpg

  28. Rays • Atlantis Marine World Stingray Bay: • Southern stingrays • Cownose rays

  29. Rays Venomous barbs http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/education/adapt/raytail2.JPG http://www.hawaii.rr.com/leisure/reviews/jennifer_crites/2004-02_ssafari.htm

  30. Rays • Giant stingrays of Thailand (freshwater) • 7.5 ft across, 10 ft tail, 771 lbs http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_LbccUVbSRd8/SacEAuaNbDI/AAAAAAAAEVA/1qMyWczSjOg/s1600-h/Giant+Stingray.jpg

  31. Other Rays Atlantic torpedo, electric ray (Torpedo nobiliana) Sawfish Guitarfish http://www.habitas.org.uk/marinelife/pisces/tornob.jpg http://www.aquafauna.be/marins/Fish/Sharks%20&%20Rays/Rhynchobatus%20djiddensis.JPG http://www.elasmodiver.com/images/sawfish-ripleys-01.jpg

  32. Skates Winter skate (Raja ocellata) Clearnose skate (Raja eglanteria) • Lay eggs, not live birth • No venomous spine • Mostly marine http://www.aqua.org/images/animals_details/Clearnose_skate.jpg http://www.elasmodiver.com/images/big-skate-xx5.jpg http://www.elasmo-research.org/education/topics/topic_images/skate_egg_cases.jpg

  33. Bony Fishes • Class Osteichthyes (bony fishes) • 96% of all fish • Vertebra, skeleton part/all bone • Cycloid or ctenoid scales • 4 pairs of gills, covered • Homocercal tail • Terminal mouth • Swim bladder ctenoid cycloid

  34. Fishes Ray-finned bony fishes Lobe-finned bony fishes 2 subclasses Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrhynchus) http://bill.srnr.arizona.edu/classes/182/Vertebrates/BonyFishEvol-1.JPG http://hhnaturemuseum.org/dimages/95.jpg

  35. NOAA Fishes – Long Island Bay anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli) American sand lance (Ammodytes americanus) Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) Mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) Atlantic menhaden, bunker (Brevoortia tyrannus) Atlantic silverside (Menidia menidia) Striped killifish (Fundulus majalis) http://www.njscuba.net/images-uw/other/sand_lance_school.jpg http://www.njscuba.net/images-uw/other/bay_anchovy.jpg http://www.njscuba.net/images-uw/njscuba/silverside.jpg http://www.njscuba.net/images-uw/other/mummichog.jpg http://ridder.punt.nl/index.php?foto=true&id=152373&fgroep=10191#foto http://www.njscuba.net/images-uw/other/striped_killy.jpg

  36. Fishes – Long Island Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) Tautog (Tautoga onitis) Black sea bass (Centropristis striata) Cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) Bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) Scup, porgy (Stenotomus chrysops) http://www.njscuba.net/biology/sw_fish_sea_basses.html http://omp.gso.uri.edu/doee/biota/fish/scup.jpg http://www.njscuba.net/images-uw/mohawk_cunners2.jpg http://www.soundwaters.org/creatures/salt%20creatures/tautog-blackfish.jpg http://www.sherpaguides.com/georgia/chattahoochee/sidebars/striped_bass.jpg http://www.dec.state.ny.us/website/dfwmr/marine/bmr/bluefish2.jpg

  37. Fishes – Long Island Northern puffer (Sphoeroides maculatus) NPS Northern pipefish (Syngnathus fuscus) Northern searobin (Prionotus carolinus) NOAA Goosefish (Lophius americanus) Ocean pout (Macrozoarces americanus) Red hake, ling (Urophycis chuss) Naked goby (Gobiosoma bosc) http://www.njscuba.net/images-uw/other/northern_pipefish_3.jpg http://njscuba.net/images-uw/brink/ocean_pout.jpg http://www.njscuba.net/images-uw/njscuba/naked_goby_2.jpg http://www.njscuba.net/images-uw/sea_robin_2.jpg http://marine.rutgers.edu/leophone/red_hake.jpg

  38. Fishes – Long Island Left-eyed Windowpane (Scophthalmus aquosus) Summer flounder, fluke (Paralichthys dentatus) Right-eyed Winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus) Hogchoker (Trinectes maculatus) http://www.njscuba.net/biology/sw_fish_flounders.html

  39. Fishes – Open Sea Bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) Ocean sunfish (Mola mola) Dolphinfish, Mahi mahi (Coryphaens hippurus) Sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus) http://www.fisheries.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/image/15886/fad-underwater-dolphinfish.jpg http://www.mola.org/mola/molamola.gif http://www.mbayaq.org/efc/living_species/organism_images/lsl_open_m163.jpg http://www.chem.ucla.edu/dept/Faculty/chanfreau/images/cocos2004/Sailfish.jpeg

  40. Fishes - Tropical http://njscuba.net/images-uw/njscuba/squirrelfish.jpg http://www.rsmas.miami.edu/support/advancement/uw-2006/images/port2-s.jpg

  41. Fishes - Tropical • Defenses: http://www.ri.net/schools/Narragansett/NES/%20Unuscreatures/TQErika/porcupinefish.jpg http://research.myfwc.com/gallery/ http://www.oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/stories/lionfish/media/lion04a_600.jpg http://www.daveread.com/FlowerGardens/LaborDay97/large/scorpionfish2.jpg

  42. Fishes - Tropical • Cryptic/ camouflage: http://www.macalester.edu/geology/wirth/Photos/Dominica/image/frogfish.jpg http://www.soc.soton.ac.uk/GDD/hydro/atmu/ecology/chapter4/

  43. Fishes - Tropical • Schooling: http://www.geoffschultz.org/Reef/Fish/images/20050622-150703.JPG http://www.biology-blog.com/images/blogs/7-2007/fishes-in-exploited-reef-12981.jpg http://www.macalester.edu/geology/wirth/Photos/Dominica/

  44. Fishes - Tropical • Predators: NOAA NOAA http://www.macalester.edu/geology/wirth/Photos/Dominica/ http://reefseekers.com/PIXPAGES/BAJA2005/Pananmic_Moray_Eel_vert.jpg

  45. Fishes – Mesopelagic Zone • Most are small (few inches) • 90% are bristlemouths and lanternfish NOAA (5 cm = 2 in)

  46. Fishes – Mesopelagic Zone Photos: http://www.mar-eco.no/

  47. Fishes – Mesopelagic Zone • Large, light-sensitive eyes • Tubular, upward eyes • Bilobed eyes (up and lateral) http://www.mbari.org/news/news_releases/2009/barreleye/barreleye1-350.jpg

  48. Fishes – Bathypelagic Zone • Large mouths • Small eyes Photos: http://www.mar-eco.no/

  49. Fishes – Bathypelagic Zone • Reproduction adaptations: • Difficult to find a mate • Bioluminescent signals • Pheromones, smell • Hermaphrodites (both sexes) • Parasitic males (in anglerfishes) Female = 1.8 in Male <0.25 in Smallest known sexually mature vertebrate http://uwnews.washington.edu/ni/images/newsreleases/2006/January/20060127_pid22210_aid22209_anglerfish_w600.jpg

  50. Fishes – Deep Sea Bottom • Relatively large and muscular • Active scavengers