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  1. NURSING HOME SAFETY John W. Hicks, OHST Texas Mutual Insurance

  2. NURSING HOME SAFETY AGENDA • History, etc. • OSHA Requirements • Management Commitment • Safety & Health Programs and Other Programs • Life Safety Code • Senate Bill 1525 • Lifting and Ergonomics In Nursing Homes • Lifting Issues/Problems & Corrective Actions • Resources

  3. WHY Nursing Home Safety? • Why • Benefits

  4. Injuries in Nursing Homes • Nursing Homes are ranked fifth among all industries for low back injuries • 17 Injuries For Every 100 Full Time Workers • Nursing Home Workers Have the Most Injuries Related to Overexertion of Any Industry (no. 1 for overexertion) • Injuries Rose 55% in the Last Decade

  5. Why Injuries Are Increasing • Pressure in the Industry to Drive Down the Price of Health Care • Nursing Home Sector Seeing More Acutely Ill Patients - Hospitals Move Patients Out Faster • More Acutely Ill Patients Means More Dependant Patients who Requires More Handling

  6. Other Injury Risks • Nursing (in general) has the highest rate of Falls to the Floor on the Same Level of any Group of Workers • 96 Cases per 10,000 workers • Lack of Adequate Housekeeping Staff Contributes to Slipping/Falling Problem

  7. Risks for Injury: Patient Handling Tasks • Frequent Manual Lifting of Patients is the Primary Risk • Two-person Manual Lift is the most common patient transfer method • Average Nursing Home Worker Lifts More Than 10,000 Human Pounds Per Day

  8. Staff to Patient Ratio • Inadequate staffing is a major obstacle to injury prevention efforts • Many transfers require two workers, but are performed by one worker • Lifting Teams have been used successfully in hospital settings to dramatically reduce workers compensation losses

  9. Standards and Regulatory • OSHA Launched an Initiative To Improve Conditions for Nursing Home Workers in 1996 • Unions Pushing for Enforceable Staffing Standards • OSHA’s Proposed Regulation on Ergonomics Could Stimulate Dramatic Improvement - If Made Into Law

  10. Nursing Home Jobs with the Most Injuries • BLS data showed that nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants accounted for 70% of nursing home injuries that resulted in days away from work. • Female employees had more injuries that resulted in lost workdays than did male employees.

  11. OSHA’s Role in the Nursing Home Industry * OSHA has begun an outreach and enforcement initiative aimed at reducing injuries and illnesses among nursing home workers. * This initiative emphasizes taking a comprehensive safety and health program approach to address all causes of injuries and illnesses in the industry.

  12. Injury and Illness Topology

  13. What Nursing Home Jobs Have the Most Injuries/Illnesses with Days Away from Work? Total number of injuries/illnesses resulting in days away from work = 83,450

  14. Number of Injuries/Illnesses* by Type of Event, Nursing and Personal Care Facilities

  15. Source of Injury or Illness Event*, Nursing and Personal Care Facilities

  16. Creating a Safety Culture

  17. Safety Pays Off in Nursing Homes • Working safely helps protect employees • Working safely affects the “bottom line” • Increases “EMPLOYEE MORAL” • Decreases potential injuries to residents

  18. OSHA –VS- Nursing Homes • Requirements • Guidelines • Various Program Requirements • Etc.

  19. OSHA’s Purpose • . . . to assure so far as possible every working man and woman in the Nation safe and healthful working conditions and to preserve our human resources . . .

  20. General Duty Clause Section 5(a)(1) of the OSH Act requires that “Each employer shall furnish to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees.”

  21. General Duty Clause (Cont’d) The general duty clause is used only where there is no OSHA standard that applies to the particular hazard involved.Examples of workplace hazards to which the general duty clause may apply include occupational exposure to TB and workplace violence.

  22. General Duty Clause (Cont’d) Four elements are required for issuing general duty clause violations: • The employer failed to keep the workplace free of a hazard to which employees of that employer were exposed • The hazard was recognized • The hazard was causing or was likely to cause death or serious physical harm • There was a feasible and useful method to correct the hazard

  23. Elements of an Effective Safety and Health Program • Management Leadership and Employee Participation • Trend Analysis • Recordkeeping • Accident and Record Analysis • Hazard Prevention and Control (Inspections) • Employee Safety and Health Training • Periodic Review and Revision

  24. Additional Elements of an Effective Safety and Health Program • Infection Control • Bloodborne Pathogen • Fleet Safety • Hazard Communication • Ergonomic and/or Back Safety Team • Emergency Response and/or Disaster Plan • Others?

  25. Management Leadership and Employee Participation • Management Leadership • Employee Participation • Implementation Tools • Contractor Safety

  26. Management Leadership Visible management leadership provides the motivating force for an effective safety and health program.

  27. Employee Participation Employee participation provides the means through which workers identify hazards, recommend and monitor abatement, and otherwise participate in their own protection.

  28. Implementation Tools Implementation tools, provided by management, include: • budget • information • personnel • assigned responsibility • adequate expertise and authority • means to hold responsible persons accountable (line accountability) • program review procedures

  29. Contractor Safety An effective safety and health program protects all personnel on the worksite, including contractors. It is the responsibility of management to address contractor safety.

  30. Workplace Analysis • Survey and Hazard Analysis • Inspection • Hazard Reporting

  31. Survey and Hazard Analysis An effective, proactive safety and health program will seek to identify and analyze all hazards. In large or complex workplaces, components of such analysis are the comprehensive and analysis of job hazards and changes in conditions.

  32. Inspection To identify new or previously missed hazards and failures in hazard controls, an effective safety and health program will include regular site inspections.

  33. Hazard Reporting A reliable hazard reporting system enables employees, without fear of reprisal, to notify management of conditions that appear hazardous and to receive timely and appropriate responses.

  34. Accident and Record Analysis • Accident Investigation • Data Analysis

  35. Accident Investigation An effective program will provide for investigation of accidents and “near miss” incidents, so that their causes, and the means for their prevention, are identified.

  36. Data Analysis An effective program will analyze injury and illness records for indications trends, and locations of hazards, and jobs that experience higher numbers of injuries. By analyzing injury and illness trends over time, patterns with common causes can be identified and prevented. Analysis should also include inspection report findings.

  37. Hazard Prevention and Control • Hazard Control • Maintenance • Medical Program

  38. Hazard Control Workforce exposure to all current and potential hazards should be prevented or controlled by using engineering controls, wherever feasible and appropriate, work practices and administrative controls, and personal protective equipment.

  39. Periodic Review and Revision • Purpose • What to review • Frequency

  40. Maintenance An effective safety and health program will provide for facility and equipment maintenance, so that hazardous breakdowns are prevented.

  41. Medical Program An effective safety and health program will include a suitable medical program where it is appropriate for the size and nature of the workplace and its hazards.

  42. Emergency Response Emergency preparedness - There should be appropriate planning, training/drills, and equipment for response to emergencies.First aid/emergency care should be readily available to minimize harm if an injury or illness occurs.

  43. Safety and Health Training Safety and health training should cover the safety and health responsibilities of all personnel who work at the site of affect its operations.It is most effective when incorporated into other training about performance requirements and job practices. It should include all subjects and areas necessary to address the hazards of the job to be performed and exposures at your site.

  44. Safety and Health Hazards in Nursing Homes • Bloodborne Pathogens • Tuberculosis • Workplace Violence • Fire • Slip/Trip/Fall • MSD’s • Cut/Punctures • Bites • Etc.

  45. Bloodborne Pathogens Pathogenic organisms that are present in human blood and can cause disease in humans. These include, but are limited to, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

  46. Scope and Application Definitions Exposure Control Plan Methods of Compliance HIV and HBV Research Laboratories and Production Facilities Hepatitis B Vaccination and Post-Exposure Follow-up Communication of Hazards to Employees Recordkeeping Effective Dates 29 CFR 1910.1030Bloodborne Pathogens Standard

  47. Highlights of 29 CFR 1910.1030 The standard applies to all employees with occupational exposure to blood and other potentially infectious materials.

  48. Highlights of 29 CFR 1910.1030 (Cont’d) Exposure Control Plan includes: • The written exposure determination; • The procedures for evaluating the circumstances surrounding an exposure incident; and • The schedule and method of implementing other sections of the standard.

  49. Highlights of 29 CFR 1910.1030 (Cont’d) Methods of Compliance • Universal Precautions • Engineering and Work Practice Controls • Personal Protective Equipment • Housekeeping

  50. Highlights of 29 CFR 1910.1030 (Cont’d) Hepatitis B Vaccination • HBV vaccination must be made available within 10 working days of initial assignment to all employees who have occupational exposure. • HBV vaccination must be made available without cost to the employee, at a reasonable time and place, and by a licensed health care professional.