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Enhancing Physical Performance

Enhancing Physical Performance

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Enhancing Physical Performance

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  1. Enhancing Physical Performance Chris Lehner – Traralgon College

  2. The Definition of Fitness & Components Fitness definitions and components

  3. The Definition of Fitness What does it mean to be Fit? Physical fitness can be defined as; ‘The ability to carry out tasks with vigour and alertness, without undue fatigue and with ample reserve energy to enjoy leisure time pursuits and to meet unforseen emergencies’. World Health Organisation Health can be defined as; ‘The absence of disease or illness’. Also includes wellness (quality of life). Obtaining an acceptable definition of fitness and being healthy is difficult as they are often vague and very generalised. VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  4. Physical Fitness as a Continuum Everyone has some form of fitness. By training we can move towards the maximum end of the scale. Less activity means a decreased fitness level. Low Adequate Maximum VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  5. The Components of Fitness • Fitness is made up of many components. • These components are used in sporting settings and can be trained to improve performance and fitness levels. • These components can be broken down into two groups; Health related and Skill related. VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  6. Health related Cardio-respiratory endurance Muscular Strength Local Muscular endurance Anaerobic power and speed Flexibility Body composition Motor-skill Muscular power Agility Coordination Balance Reaction time Health and Motor-Skill Components VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  7. Anaerobic energy Sports which rely on rapid and explosive movements obtain their energy anaerobically. Anaerobic power and speed Local muscular endurance Muscular strength Muscular power Agility Balance Reaction time Aerobic energy Prolonged and sub maximal activities longer than 60 seconds rely on aerobic energy production. Uses stored carbohydrates and fat. The maximum amount of oxygen that the body can use during aerobic activities is called VO2 max. Aerobic sports require; Cardio respiratory endurance. Fitness Components and Energy Systems VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  8. Health Related Components of Fitness Fitness definitions and components

  9. Fitness level of the cardiovascular system. It delivers oxygenated blood to working muscles, and nutrients, while performing and removes wastes. Also know as aerobic endurance, aerobic capacity, aerobic fitness or aerobic power. Most essential component at rest and during recovery. Examples: Team sports netball, football, hockey, soccer, volleyball, water, polo, basketball, lacrosse and rugby. Racquet sports such as tennis and squash. Extended athletic events such as the marathon, triathlons and cross country skiing. Improvements: Cardio-respiratory endurance is developed through the use of continuous and interval training. Thus improving VO2 max (continuous), tolerance lactic acid raising the Lactate Inflection Point (LIP) and improving efficiency of the heart as a pump (interval). Cardio-respiratory Endurance VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  10. Muscular Strength The force or tension a muscle or muscle group can exert against a resistance in one maximal contraction (1RM) • It is an integral part of anaerobic power, muscular power and local muscular endurance and is rarely used in isolation. Improvements;Circuit and weights trainingimproves the explosive acceleration required for muscular strength. VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  11. Factors Affecting Strength • Age – Max strength obtained at 25-30 years of age and decreases thereafter. • Gender – Same pre-pubescent, however females 2/3 strength of males thereafter. • Size (Cross-sectional area) – The larger the muscle, the more force it can apply • Muscle shape – Strength is specific to specific muscles /groups. See picture next slide. • Muscle fibre type – FT produce more force than ST. A muscle biopsy can determine percentage of FT fibres. • Muscle fibre recruitment – The stronger the nerve impulse, the greater the amount of fibres contracted. Eg. 1RM all fibres recruited. • Joint angle and muscle length – Max strength at 120o. See fig 7.8 p.155 • Speed of contraction – As speed increases, strength decreases. • Type of contraction - isometric (static), isokinetic, isotonic (concentric and eccentric) VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  12. Local Muscular Endurance • The ability of a muscle or group of muscles to sustain an activity for a short time in the face of considerable local fatigue (eg push-ups). • Tasks may require anaerobic energy in addition to aerobic because contraction of the muscle may occlude (block) the blood vessels that supply the muscle tissue. • Closely linked with muscular strength. Improvements;Continuos training or weight training VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  13. Inorganic phosphate – Rising levels of Pi is considered the major cause of fatigue. Note. Lactic acid is not directly associated with muscular fatigue. Age – Fatigue levels increase with age. 3. Temperature – Optimal muscle temperature is 37oC. Temperatures outside this range will affect fatigue levels 4. Circulation – Improved circulation as a result of training can reduce fatigue levels. New clothing such as ‘Skins’ can also help. 5. Cross-education effect – Training one limb has the same effect in the other limb. Factors Affecting LME fatigue VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  14. Anaerobic Power and Speed Anaerobic Power Anaerobic power is required for most sports. It is explosive movements performed quickly. • It produces its energy in the absence of oxygen. An athlete’s power is a measure of their anaerobic pathways. Speed Speed is the ability of the body to perform a task or movement quickly. Power and speed are very closely related. Improvements ; • In sprint or high-level interval training (at least three times per week), keep the heart rate in the ‘training zone’ for at least 20 minutes. • Undertake 20–80-metre interval running sprints, starting with a ‘walk back’ recovery and progressing to a ‘jog back’ recovery. • Undertake 300–600-metre running ‘cruises’ • The same interval concept will produce anaerobic gains, when used for related sports such as cycling or swimming. • Weight training can also improve anaerobic power. VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  15. Factors Affecting Speed Speed can be affected by an athletes; Acceleration levels, initial velocity, strength and fatigue tolerance levels. Reaction time is an indirect factor. Speed is also influenced by our genetics; Bone size, angle of joints, position of ligament and tendon attachments, muscle fibre types. VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  16. Flexibility Flexibility is the ability to gain the range of movement required for a particular sport. • Flexibility is based on skeletal and muscular interaction. • It is very important for injury prevention, ease of movement and aesthetic appearance. • Flexibility can be static (Eg. Sit and reach test) or dynamic (Eg. Range of motion during a skill). Improvements; Flexibility training. VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  17. Joint Structure and capsule– The greater the stability of a joint, the less flexible it will be. Length of muscle at rest – Inactive people have shortened muscle length which reduces flexibility levels. Muscle temperature – Warming of the muscle to 37oC and stretching will assist with flexibility. Specific flexibility - for particular sports Age – Lose flexibility with age Gender – Females more flexible than males Body build – Leaner people are generally more flexible Injury – Prior injuries reduce flexibility levels Skin and bone resistance Disease Factors Affecting Flexibility VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  18. Body Composition Proportion of bone, muscle and fat in an athlete. Body composition can be measured three ways; • Somatotypes • Endomorph – Short/fat • Mesomorph- muscular • Ectomorph – Tall/thin 2. Body fat determination • Densitometry – Submerging the athlete in water to determine lean body mass (LBM) in comparison to fat mass (FM) • Skinfold measurements – Skin thickness is measured at various sites on the body. • Body mass index (BMI) • Height / weight2 VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  19. Body Mass Index (BMI) VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  20. Motor Skill Related Components of Fitness Fitness definitions and components

  21. Muscular Power Powerful movements lasting for a few seconds only. • It is the ability to exert a “maximal” contraction in one explosive act. • Dependant upon speed and strength. • Max power is generated when the speed of contraction is around 35% of its max and the force contraction is about 35% of its max. • Power is required for most sports Eg, field events such as shot-put, discus, javelin, high jump, long jump and hammer throw, tackling in football or rugby, a spike in volleyball etc. VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  22. Agility Ability to change direction with maximal speed and control Combination of; power, speed, flexibility, balance and coordination. Important in sports which require sudden changes of direction. Improvements; Training can improve speed, reaction time, flexibility, coordination and balance – thus improving agility. VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  23. Anaerobic Power and Speed Anaerobic Power Anaerobic power is required for most sports. It is explosive movements performed quickly. • It produces its energy in the absence of oxygen. An athlete’s power is a measure of their anaerobic pathways. Speed Speed is the ability of the body to perform a task or movement quickly. Power and speed are very closely related. Improvements ; • In sprint or high-level interval training (at least three times per week), keep the heart rate in the ‘training zone’ for at least 20 minutes. • Undertake 20–80-metre interval running sprints, starting with a ‘walk back’ recovery and progressing to a ‘jog back’ recovery. • Undertake 300–600-metre running ‘cruises’ • The same interval concept will produce anaerobic gains, when used for related sports such as cycling or swimming. • Weight training can also improve anaerobic power. VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  24. Factors Affecting Speed Speed can be affected by an athletes; Acceleration levels, initial velocity, strength and fatigue tolerance levels. Reaction time is an indirect factor. Speed is also influenced by our genetics; Bone size, angle of joints, position of ligament and tendon attachments, muscle fibre types. VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  25. Coordination Ability to link muscle groups to appear well controlled and efficient. • Involves the nervous system and muscular system working harmoniously in hand-eye and foot-eye coordination activities. Improvements; Can be developed through specific skill training and through enhancement of core stability and balance. VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  26. Balance The ability to remain in a state of equilibrium while performing a desired task. Dynamic – moving Static – Not moving Relies on core stability Improvements; Training methods such as Pilates and Swiss balls. Reaction Time Ability to react to an outside stimulus Improvements; Practice with starter guns, overload with quicker stimuli (eg quicker squash balls). Balance & Reaction Time VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

  27. Australian Sports Commission: http://www.ausport.gov.au • Find 30 promotion (Government of WA Department of Health): http://www.find30.com.au • Walking School Bus promotion (UK): http://www.walkingbus.com • Ministry of Health (New Zealand) toolkits: http://www.newhealth.govt.nz • The 10,000 Steps Rockhampton project: http://www.10000steps.org.au/rockhampton/ • Travelsmart Australia: http://www.travelsmart.gov.au • World Health Organisation: http://www.who.int • Heart Foundation Australia: http://www.heartfoundation.com.au • VicHealth (The Victorian Health Promotion Foundation): http://www.vichealth.vic.gov.au • Be Active promotion (Government of South Australia): http://www.beactive.com.au • Go For Your Life: http://www.goforyourlife.vic.gov.au • Physical Activity Resources for Health Professionals – Introduction (Centre for disease control and prevention – USA): http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/physical/health_professionals/index.htm • Health Promotion (Public Health Agency of Canada): http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/hp-ps/index.html • Strategic Inter-Governmental Forum on Physical Activity and Health (SIGPAH): http://www.nphp.gov.au/workprog/sigpah/ • Healthy youth (Centre for disease control and prevention (USA): http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/ • America On The Move promotion: http://www.americaonthemove.org • Papers from the International Journal of Behavioural Nutrition and Physical Activity: http://www.ijbnpa.org/home • Department of health and aging (Australian government): http://www.health.gov.au/internet/wcms/publishing.nsf/content/home • Building a healthy, active Australia (Australian government): http://www.healthyactive.gov.au • National Public Health Partnership: http://www.nphp.gov.au • Be Active promotion (Government of South Australia): http://www.beactive.com.au • Sport and Recreation Australia: http://www.sport.vic.gov.au Web Links – • United States Department of Health and Human Services: http://www.os.dhhs.gov/ • World Health Organisation (WHO) health topics: http://www.who.int/topics/en/ • Sports Coach UK – conditioning: http://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/conditon.htm • Sports Coach UK – ideal weight: http://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/idealw.htm#bmi • International Association of Athletics Federations: http://www.iaaf.org • Life coaching (UK): http://www.coaching-life.co.uk • Athletics Australia: http://www.athletics.org.au/ VCE Physical Education - Unit 4