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Exodus

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Exodus

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  1. Exodus God Delivers Israelfrom Egyptian Captivity

  2. Introduction to the Book of Exodus • The title of the Book of Exodus • Hebrew – “And these are the names” • LXX (Septuagint) – going out or going forth • Writer of Exodus • Moses • Two main parts of Exodus • The Israelites in Egyptian bondage (1:1-12:36) • The Israelites in the desert (12:37-40:38)

  3. Introduction to the Book of Exodus • Beginning and ending point of the book • Begins with Israelites in Egyptian bondage • Ends with the building of the tabernacle • Main outline of the book • The Hebrews in Egypt (1:1- 12:36) • The Egyptian bondage (Ch. 1) • The preparation of Moses (Chs. 2-4) • The struggle with Pharaoh (Chs. 5-11) • The Passover (12:1-36)

  4. Introduction to the Book of Exodus • Main outline of the book • The Hebrews from Egypt to Sinai (12:37-18) • The exodus (12:37 - 15:21) • The journey to Sinai (15:22-ch 17) • The visit of Jethro (Ch. 18) • The Hebrews at Sinai (Chs. 19 - 40) • The law given (Chs. 19-24) • The pattern of the tabernacle given (Chs. 25-31) • The idolatry of the people (Chs. 32-34) • The construction of the tabernacle (Chs. 35-40)

  5. Introduction to the Book of Exodus Waldemar Janzen, The Believers Church Bible Commentary, Exodus

  6. Introduction to the Book of Exodus • Theme of the book of Exodus - God’s deliverance and maturing of Israel as the covenant people of the one true God • The Exodus is the central event in Jewish history as God’s covenant people governed by the Torah (Law) Exodus from Egypt Promised Land Egypt

  7. Introduction to the Book of Exodus • Teachings of the book of Exodus • Teach people who God is • Teach people that God is greater than any gods invented by people (18:11) • Live by faith in the one God • God gives people direction on how to live and worship

  8. Introduction to the Book of Exodus • Timeline of the Book of Exodus - Early Date • 1527 BC - Moses born • 1487 BC - Moses flees Egypt at age 40 • 1447 BC - Moses returns to Egypt at age 80 (Ex. 7:7) • 1447 BC - Plagues occur within a years time

  9. Introduction to the Book of Exodus • Timeline of the Book of Exodus - Early Date • 1446 BC - Exodus • Exodus dated by Passover 14th day of 1st month (Ex. 12:2, 6, 18) • Entered desert of Sin on 15th day of the 2nd month (Ex. 16:1) • Tabernacle erected on the 1st day of the 1st month of the 2nd year (1445 B.C.) • Arrive at Kadesh-barnea - Num. 20:1 (1444) • Wilderness wandering (1448-1406) • Plains of Moab - Moses address - Deut. 1:3, 5 (1406)

  10. Book of Exodus Historical Background • Historical Situation (Early Date) • The descendents of Jacob/Israel multiplied and were oppressed by Pharaohs after Joseph’s time who “knew not Joseph” • Hyksos (non-Egyptians – Semetic) dynasty may have oppressed them • Amenhotep I (1559-1539), Thutmose I (1539-1514),Thutmose II, Queen Hatshepsut, Thutmose III, and Amenhotep II (1447-1421) continued the oppression • Moses was born about 1527 B.C. • Pharaoh was Thutmose I (1539-1514 B.C.)

  11. Book of Exodus Historical Background • Historical Situation (Early Date) • Moses dates and Exodus time • Hatshepsut, daughter of Thutmose I found Moses & was married to her brother, Thutmose II • She became Pharaoh after Thutmose II (Queen Hatshepsut) • Thutmose III (Hatshepsut’s step-brother) and ruled Egypt for almost fifty-four years, and his reign is usually dated from 1501-1447 B.C. • Moses fled during this time • Moses returns in 1447 BC with Amenhotep II (1447-1421) on the throne • Exodus occurs in 1446 B.C.

  12. Book of Exodus Historical Background • Pharaoh of the Exodus • Amenhotep II was probably the pharaoh of the exodus (1447-1421) • Dream Stela - Thutmose IV was successor to Amenhotep II but he was not the crown prince • According to Thutmose's account on the Dream Stele, the young prince was out on a hunting trip and stopped to rest under the head of the Sphinx, which was buried up to the neck in sand. He fell asleep and had a dream in which the Sphinx told him that if he cleared away the sand and restored it he would become the next Pharaoh. • This raise the question of what happen to the true successor to the throne – death of first-born plague Relief of Amenhotep II

  13. Book of Exodus Historical Background • Pharaoh of the Exodus • Dream Stella - Thutmose IV was successor to Amenhotep II but he was not the crown prince • According to Thutmose's account on the Dream Stele, the young prince was out on a hunting trip and stopped to rest under the head of the Sphinx, which was buried up to the neck in sand. He fell asleep and had a dream in which the Sphinx told him that if he cleared away the sand and restored it he would become the next Pharaoh. • This raise the question of what happen to the true successor to the throne – death of first-born plague? Dream Stella

  14. Book of Exodus Historical Background • Length of time in Egypt • 430 years (Ex. 12:40) from time of Jacob's family moved to Egypt until the exodus (see also Gen. 15:13, 15). • Now the time that the sons of Israel lived in Egypt was four hundred and thirty years (Ex. 12:40) • Some say 215 years due to Gal. 3:17 along with the LXX which gives the idea that Abraham’s entry and sojourn in Canaan are included • However probably should start from Joseph brings his family to Egypt about

  15. Book of Exodus Historical Background • Time-line for Egyptian Captivity & Exodus

  16. Survey of Exodus – Egyptian Captivity • Egyptian oppression of Israelites (1:1-22) • Sons of Jacob/Israel (1-7) • All son of Jacob have died • There descendents multiplied and filled the land • New Pharaoh oppresses the Israelites (8-14) • He did not know Joseph • There was fear of the number of Israelites • A fear they might join forces with enemies of Egypt • Dependent on Israelites as a work force • Put them to slave labor • Building storage cities in Pithom and Ramses in Goshen • Mainly making bricks and mortar

  17. Survey of Exodus – Egyptian Captivity • Egyptian oppression of Israelites (1:1-22) • Pharaoh orders killing of male babies (15-22) • Midwives told to kill baby boys when they are born • Refused because they feared God • Pharaoh asks why they did not do it and was told the Hebrew women gave birth to fast • God blesses the midwives with families because they feared Him more the Pharaoh • Pharaoh commands that new born baby boys be cast into the Nile

  18. Survey of Exodus – Egyptian Captivity • Preparation of Moses & God's Call to Deliver His People (2:1-4:31) • Birth and youth of Moses (2:1-10) • Moses parents were from the tribe of Levi - Amram & Jochebed • They hid Moses for 3 months then put him in a basket among the reeds on the bank of the Nile • Mariam, Moses sister watched over him • Aaron was three years older than Moses (7:7) • Mariam older than Aaron • Pharaoh's daughter discovers Moses • Mariam asks her if she wants someone to nurse the child • Pharaoh's daughter pays for the care of Moses • Moses brought to Pharaoh's daughter when he grew older • Named Moses because he was "drawn from water" name means son of water • Scriptures about Moses' background in Egypt. • Acts 7:22 • Heb. 11:23 • Pharoah's daughter may have been queen Halshepaut who ruled Egypt.

  19. Survey of Exodus – Egyptian Captivity • Preparation of Moses & God's Call to Deliver His People (2:1-4:31) • Birth and youth of Moses (2:1-10) • Pharaoh's daughter discovers Moses • Mariam asks her if she wants someone to nurse the child • Pharaoh's daughter pays for the care of Moses • Moses brought to Pharaoh's daughter when he grew older • Name Moses means son of water • Scriptures about Moses' background in Egypt • Acts 7:22 • Heb. 11:23

  20. Survey of Exodus – Egyptian Captivity • Preparation of Moses & God's Call to Deliver His People (2:1-4:31) • Moses flees to Midian (2:11-23) • Observes the oppression of his people • Kills and Egyptian who was beating a Hebrew • Tries to stop a fight between two Hebrews and finds out they know about the killing • Flees to Midian as Pharaoh is seeking his life • At a well Moses helps Reuel's daughters water their sheep as other shepherds were hindering them • Reuel’s daughters to invite Moses to their home • Moses stays with Reuel, marries daughter, Zipporah • They have a son named Gershom (a stranger there)

  21. Survey of Exodus – Egyptian Captivity • Preparation of Moses & God's Call to Deliver His People (2:1-4:31) • God remembers His covenant (2:23-25) • King of Egypt who was seeking his life is dead • Israelites were crying out to be delivered (indicates they were ready for deliverance) • God remember his covenant with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob

  22. Survey of Exodus – Egyptian Captivity • Preparation of Moses & God's Call to Deliver His People (2:1-4:31) • God calls of Moses (3:1-4:17) • Moses father-in-law • Reuel = friend of God • Jethro (Reuel's other name) = May be a title meaning "Highness." • Priest of Midian • Moses was pasturing his father-in-laws sheep near Horeb, mountain of God, when he saw the burning bush • Horeb is a mountain range, a particular peak is Sinai • Bush was not consumed

  23. Survey of Exodus – Egyptian Captivity • Preparation of Moses & God's Call to Deliver His People (2:1-4:31) • God calls of Moses (3:1-4:17) • God speaks from the burning bush • Tells Moses he is on holy ground • Tells Moses who he is, God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob • Tells him he is going to deliver His people as he had promised • Will take them to a land filled with milk and honey • Tells Moses he is go to send him to deliver the people from Pharaoh

  24. Survey of Exodus – Egyptian Captivity • Preparation of Moses & God's Call to Deliver His People (2:1-4:31) • God calls of Moses (3:1-4:17) • Moses objections to going to Egypt to deliver Israel • First, wants to know why he should be the one. • God's answer is He chose him and will be with him • God gave him a sign that they would worship at Mt. Horeb where Moses was pasturing the sheep

  25. Survey of Exodus – Egyptian Captivity • Preparation of Moses & God's Call to Deliver His People (2:1-4:31) • God calls of Moses (3:1-4:17) • Moses objections to going to Egypt to deliver Israel • Second objection was what name should I give to them for the God of their fathers (3:13-22) • God says "I Am" sent Moses. • Emphasizes God's eternalness and self-existence • Lord God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob sent me • Gather the elders of Israel and tell them I will bring them out of Egypt to Land of the Canaanites, land of milk and honey • God warns Moses that the elders will not listen to Moses

  26. Survey of Exodus – Egyptian Captivity • Preparation of Moses & God's Call to Deliver His People (2:1-4:31) • God calls of Moses (3:1-4:17) • Moses objections to going to Egypt to deliver Israel • Second objection was what name should I give to them for the God of their fathers (3:13-22) • God tells Moses that he is to go to the king of Egypt and say the "God of the Hebrews" says to let His people go three days journey in the wilderness to sacrifice • God notes Pharaoh will need to be forced to let them go • God will use Pharaoh's stubbornness to show His power and will let them go • The Israelites will not leave empty handed but with silver, gold, clothing and plunder the Egyptians

  27. Survey of Exodus – Egyptian Captivity • Preparation of Moses & God's Call to Deliver His People (2:1-4:31) • God calls of Moses (3:1-4:17) • Moses objections to going to Egypt to deliver Israel • Moses third objection was what if the Israelites do not believe him and say God has not really appeared to him (4:1-9) • Three signs given as proof • Staff turn to a snake (Moses flees and picks up by tail) • Hand turned to leprosy • Water from the Nile poured out will turn to blood

  28. Survey of Exodus – Egyptian Captivity • Preparation of Moses & God's Call to Deliver His People (2:1-4:31) • God calls of Moses (3:1-4:17) • Moses objections to going to Egypt to deliver Israel • Moses fourth objection was he was a poor public speaker (4:10-17) • God note that he created the mouth and can do what he wants with it and will teach Moses what to say • Moses wants out of the job • God tells him he will send Aaron, his brother with him who is a good speaker • Moses is to take the staff to use to perform signs • Jewish tradition says that Moses was a stutterer

  29. Survey of Exodus – Egyptian Captivity • Preparation of Moses & God's Call to Deliver His People (2:1-4:31) • God Moses and Aaron preparing to go to Egypt (4:18-31) • Moses prepares to leave • Moses asks Jethro for leave to go to Egypt with his wife and son • God give Moses some instructions • All who were seeking his life are dead • He will perform wonders but God will harden Pharaoh's heart • Tell pharaoh that Israel is God's first born son • Tell pharaoh if he does not let them go God will kill his first born son

  30. Survey of Exodus – Egyptian Captivity • Preparation of Moses & God's Call to Deliver His People (2:1-4:31) • God Moses and Aaron preparing to go to Egypt (4:18-31) • Zipporah circumcises her son. • Throws the forskin at Moses and calls him the "bridegroom of blood) • Did it because the Lord sought to kill him • "Him" may be Moses of Gershom • Circumcision was a sign of the covenant • God was displeased for lack of that sign • No covenant sign, no protection • Zipporah seems to have returned home

  31. Survey of Exodus – Egyptian Captivity • Preparation of Moses & God's Call to Deliver His People (2:1-4:31) • God Moses and Aaron preparing to go to Egypt (4:18-31) • Moses and Aaron meet at the mountain of God • Moses tells Aaron what God had told him • Moses & Aaron assemble the elders of Israel & perform the signs • People believed when they heard the Lord was concerned with their afflictions and they bowed down

  32. Survey of Exodus – Egyptian Captivity • The struggle with Pharaoh • Pharaoh intensifies the Israelites labor • Moses and Aaron ask for the Israelites to go three days in the wilderness to worship • Pharaoh refuses and increase their labor by making them gather their own straw • Foremen of the Israelites complain to Pharaoh who says it is their own peoples fault • Foremen complain to Moses for Pharaoh because of his harsher actions toward them

  33. Survey of Exodus – Egyptian Captivity • The struggle with Pharaoh • Moses’ and God’s discussion about Israelite situation (5:22-6:13) • Moses claims God has brought harm to the Israelites and not delivered them (5:22-23) • God explains His plan to Moses • Pharaoh will be compelled to let the Israelites go • God will keep His covenant which he made with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob • God, El Shaddai (God Almighty), Yahweh (Lord) • Moses tells Israelites God’s plans, they don’t listen because of despondency & cruel bondage (6:9) • God sends Moses back to Pharaoh (6:12)

  34. Survey of Exodus – Egyptian Captivity • The struggle with Pharaoh • The generations of Ruben, Simeon & Levi (6:14-27) • Ruben’s descendents • Simeon’s descendents • Levi’s descendents • Gershon, Hohath and Merari • Future priestly families • Kohath – Amram (Moses father), Ishar, Hebron, Uzziel • Amram married his father’s sister • Aaron and Moses born to Amram • Sons of Aaron – Nadab and Abihu, Eleazer, Ithamar • Genealogy for overview of priestly families

  35. Survey of Exodus – Egyptian Captivity • The struggle with Pharaoh • Moses before Pharaoh for release (6:28-7:13) • Moses goes with Aaron as his “prophet” (6:28-7:7) • Message – let God’s people go • Pharaoh’s heart hardened to display the power of God • Reasons for the miracles (plagues) • Israelites will know God (6:7; 10:2; 11:17) • Egyptians will know God is Lord (Ruler) (7:5; 14:4, 18) • Pharaoh will know the power of the one God (7:17; 8:10, 22; 9:14, 29) • Show God is more powerful than the gods of Egypt (12:12) • Convince the Israelites that Moses was sent by God • Display the power of God as above the Egyptian gods • Moses was 80 years old and Aaron 83 (7:7)

  36. Survey of Exodus – Egyptian Captivity • The struggle with Pharaoh • Moses before Pharaoh for release (6:28-7:13) • Moses’ miracle before Pharaoh (7:8-13) • Staff turns to a snake (tannin – crocodile?, not usual word for snake) • Wisemen, sorcerers, and magicians to the same • Aaron’s staff swallows the Egyptians • Pharaoh’s hear was hardened

  37. Survey of Exodus – Egyptian Captivity • The struggle with Pharaoh • God’s ten miracles or plagues (7:14-12:36) • Water to blood (7:14-25) • Moses has Aaron raise stretch his hand over water and it turns to blood • Magicians of Egypt were able to do the same • Pharaoh’s heart was hardened • Miracle opposed to the power of Egyptian gods • Khnum – guardian of the Nile • Hapi – Spirit of the Nile • Osiris – Nile was Osiris bloodstream • Isis – goddess of the Nile Isis

  38. Survey of Exodus – Egyptian Captivity • The struggle with Pharaoh • God’s ten miracles or plagues (7:14-12:36) • God’s role in hardening Pharaoh’s heart is not till 6th plague (9:12) • Kabed (6 times) – heavy hearted, not receptive to outside influence • Chzaq (12 times) – bullheaded • Qashah (1 time) – to be hard or difficult Amenhotep II

  39. Survey of Exodus – Egyptian Captivity • The struggle with Pharaoh • God’s ten miracles or plagues (7:14-12:36) • Frogs (8:1-15) • Aaron stretches hand over the streams and pools • Magicians able to do the same – o-boy more frogs • Pharaoh asks they be taken away tomorrow and then he will let the Israelites go • Pharaoh changes his mind and does not let them go • Miracle opposed to the power of Egyptian gods: • Heqet – form of a frog, god of resurrection

  40. Survey of Exodus – Egyptian Captivity • The struggle with Pharaoh • God’s ten miracles or plagues (7:14-12:36) • Lice/Gnats (8:16-19) • Strike the dust of the earth • Magicians not able to do the same • Miracle opposed to the power of Egyptian gods: • Set (Seth) – god of the desert • Magicians say this is "the finger of God"

  41. Survey of Exodus – Egyptian Captivity • First three plagues on Egypt

  42. Survey of Exodus – Egyptian Captivity

  43. Survey of Exodus – Egyptian Captivity • The struggle with Pharaoh • God’s ten miracles or plagues (7:14-12:36) • Flies (8:20-32) • Swarms of insects • Land of Goshen did not experience the plague (23) • Pharaoh says they can sacrifice in the land but Moses says God said three days so Pharaoh says to go • Miracle opposed to the power of Egyptian gods: • Ra – sun god, possibly represented by the fly • After the plaque Pharaoh hardens his heart

  44. Survey of Exodus – Egyptian Captivity • The struggle with Pharaoh • God’s ten miracles or plagues (7:14-12:36) • Plague on cattle (9:1-7) • Not on the cattle of the Israelites • Livestock of the Egyptian's die • Pharaoh sent someone to check on the cattle of the Israelites and found they were all well • Pharaoh hardens his heart • Miracle opposed to the power of Egyptian gods: • Apis: bull of god Ptah; symbol of fertility • Hathor: mother-godess; form of cow • Mnevis: sacred bull of Heliopolis Hathor

  45. Survey of Exodus – Egyptian Captivity • The struggle with Pharaoh • God’s ten miracles or plagues (7:14-12:36) • Boils (9:8-12) • Throw soot toward the sky • Even the magicians had boils • Lord hardened Pharaoh's heart • Miracle opposed to the power of Egyptian gods: • Isis – goddess of healing and life • Sekhmet – goddess with power over disease • Sunu – god of pestilence Sekhment Isis & Horus

  46. Survey of Exodus – Egyptian Captivity • The struggle with Pharaoh • God’s ten miracles or plagues (7:14-12:36) • Hail (9:13-35) • Plague that they may know that "there is no one like Me in all the earth (14). Let them remain to show them his power, and in order to proclaim His name through all the earth (16). • Some Egyptians revered the word of the Lord took cover - probably in January or early February when barley and flax are ripe. • The land of Goshen was not hit with hail • Pharaoh said he had sinned (25) • Pharaoh says they can go but after it stops Pharaoh "sins again" and hardens his heart (34)

  47. Survey of Exodus – Egyptian Captivity • The struggle with Pharaoh • God’s ten miracles or plagues (7:14-12:36) • Hail (9:13-35) • Miracle opposed to the power of Egyptian gods: • Nut: sky goddess • Isis: goddess of life • Seth: protector of the crops Seth Nut

  48. Survey of Exodus – Egyptian Captivity • The struggle with Pharaoh • God’s ten miracles or plagues (7:14-12:36) • Locust (10:1-20) • God explains why he hardened Pharaoh's heart • To perform signs among them • To tell their children and grandchildren of the great signs God performed • So they may know that He is the Lord • God tells Moses and Aaron to ask Pharaoh how long he will refuse to humble himself before the Lord • Servants of Pharaoh urge him to let them go • Pharaoh says the men can go but no one else • Locust brought by east wind (from desert) and eat what was left from the hail

  49. Survey of Exodus – Egyptian Captivity • The struggle with Pharaoh • God’s ten miracles or plagues (7:14-12:36) • Locust (10:1-20) • Pharaoh says he's sinned and Just this once make supplication to the Lord on his behalf • West wind blows the locust into the Red Sea • The Lord hardens Pharaoh's heart • Miracle opposed to the power of Egyptian gods: • Isis: goddess of life • Seth: protector of crops • Osiris: god of crops and fertility

  50. Survey of Exodus – Egyptian Captivity • The struggle with Pharaoh • God’s ten miracles or plagues (7:14-12:36) • Darkness – that can be felt (10:21-29) • Darkness for three days • May refer to a sand storm (Khamsin - blots out the light) • Israel had light in their land • Pharaoh says everyone may go but not the flocks and herds. Moses says they need the herds for sacrifices. • God hardens Pharaoh's heart and Pharaoh threatens to kill Moses if he sees him again. • Moses says he is right he will never see his face again. • Miracle opposed to the power of Egyptian gods: • Re, Aten, Atum, Horus, Nut: all sun gods of some kind