Renewable Energy. Chapter 13 Freidland Chapter 16 Miller. Case Study – Energy from the moon. Why is this energy called moon energy? Where is this first commercial tidal energy plant in the U.S.? What are the advantages?. Energy. Renewable Energy
Case Study – Energy from the moon Why is this energy called moon energy? Where is this first commercial tidal energy plant in the U.S.? What are the advantages?
Energy Renewable Energy The amount available tomorrow does not depend on how much we use today.
Global Energy Use U.S. Energy Use
Using Less Energy Energy Conservation Tiered rate system Energy Efficiency Compact fluorescent light bulbs LED light bulbs
Peak Demand Energy use varies with: Energy companies must be equipped to handle the peak demand or: Variable pricing means: 2nd Law of Thermodynamics
Sustainable Design Houses close to jobs Passive Solar Design Construction materials with high thermal inertia
Green Roofs More common in: Cool and shades the building. Improves air quality. Aesthetic value
Biomass is energy from the sun
Biomass energy Includes: and Liquid fuels - U.S. World
Modern carbon versus fossil carbon Modern Carbon Fossil Carbon
Solid Biomass Wood Trees for fuel is sustainable if….. Otherwise… Tree harvesting can actually be beneficial… Charcoal Made from wood – lighter than wood Advantages Disadvantages
Solid biomass Manure Used where wood is scarce. Burning removes harmful microorganisms reducing disease. Does release particles (particulate matter)into atmosphere. Air Pollution Includes:
Biofuels - Ethanol Alcohol made from converting starches and sugars from plant into alcohol and carbon dioxide. Made from: U.S. World Leader in ethanol production – 90% from: Brazil is ____ mostly from _____________ Ethanol is mixed with gasoline called: which is ____ethanol Corn growing states E-85 which is _______ethanol Flex-fuel vehicles – run on E-85 or gas Advantages – less pollutants emitted
Ethanol Disadvantages Switchgrass Perennial crop Less soil disturbance and erosion. Does not require as much However, cellulose not sugar so:
Biofuels - Biodiesel More expensive than petroleum diesel. B-20: Can be used in any diesel engine without modification. Biodiesel tends to solidify into a gel at low temperatures so vehicles must be modified to use a greater %. Vehicle can be modified to run on 100% SVO (straight vegetable oil) In U.S. oil used is? Potential to obtain from algae. Carbon neutral. Emission of CO lower than petroleum diesel.
Hydroelectricity Electricity generated by kinetic energy of moving water. _____ most common form of renewable energy World and U.S. Form of renewable energy most used to: 7% of electricity generated in U.S. Three states: China is the leader, then _______, then _____.
How It works Run-of-the-river system Water impoundment system
Largest Dams 6,800 MW At Peak U.S. Grand Coulee Dam World’s Largest Three Gorges Dam 18,000 MW At Peak
Tidal Energy Movement of water driven by gravitational pull of moon. Not a major energy source because:
Solar Energy Varies with cloudiness, time of day and season
Passive Solar heating Passive Solar Design Solar Ovens
Active Solar Energy Capture sunlight with use of technologies. Solar water heater Generally connected to a backup electric heating element.
Photovoltaic systems (PV) Photovoltaic solar cells Cells in the panel are semiconductors that generate a low-voltage electric current when exposed to light.
Smart parking meters Converting from drop-in-a-coin-and-twist-the-dial machines to a new generation of meters. Used outside the USA for about 20 years, and here for at least 10 years. Can reinserts the credit card when leaving and get a refund for unused time. Don't have to carry change around in the car. The meters — some of which also take coins — include solar-powered devices that take credit or debit cards, meters that can be paid by cellphone, and meters linked by wireless networks that can be remotely controlled and alert officers to parking violations, Pull into a spot, call the meter system by cellphone and enter the parking space number and the amount of money for the time they want. The cost for multispace meters ranges from $7,000 to $10,000,
Concentrating Solar Thermal systems (CST)
Solar Energy advantages disadvantages
Geothermal Energy Iceland Renewable energy NOT from the sun. Convection currents in earth’s mantle bring hot magma toward the earth’s surface. Largest producers are:
Harvesting geothermal energy Pipe hot ground water in to household generators. Heat exchangers Used to generate electricity also.
Geothermal Energy U.S. - Renewable energy Geothermal power plants
Ground Source Heat Pumps Earth’s temperature about 10 feet under maintains a fairly constant temperature of 50˚- 60˚F. Due to Sun’s heat. Does not remove steam or water from ground.
Wind Energy Wind Result of: Sun is the source of all wind. U.S. Largest wind generating capacity Less than 1% of electricity from wind Largest amounts in:
U.S. generates more electricity from wind energy than any other country.
Generating Electricity from Wind Wind turbine
Offshore wind turbines They can be made larger. Practical to arrange in groups of wind farms Must be located close to electrical transmission lines.
Wind energyFastest-growing major source of electricity in the world. advantages disadvantages
Hydrogen fuel Cells Fuel cell Works like a battery Reactants are added continuously to the cell so the cell produces electricity for as along as it is supplied with fuel. Reaction of hydrogen and oxygen which forms water. 2H2 + O2 2H2O
Hydrogen Fuel 80% efficient Only byproduct is water Scientists must learn how to obtain hydrogen without expending more fossil fuel than its use would save. Supplies need a safe delivery system to customers Vehicles must be redesigned with larger fuel tanks that will not rupture. Use an electric motor which is more efficient Converts 60% of energy into motion Internal combustion can – 20% advantages disadvantages
Renewable Energy Needed Direct funding – Government funding to support research Financial incentives Tax cuts Consumer rebates
Electric Grid Distribution system for electricity Some areas cannot supply the energy needed. Some areas do not have the infrastructure to accommodate the electricity that can be generated. Current structure requires energy to be moved long distances to the consumer.
Smart Grid Efficient, self-regulating electricity distributing network. Uses internet and computer programs
Smart Grid Smart appliances plug into a smart grid. Computer set on dishwater set to run between midnight and 5 am depending on when there is a surplus of energy.