Warm-Up: • Answer the question on the back of your video guide: • Was the war inevitable? Could it have been avoided? Why was compromise so unsuccessful?
Objectives: • Students will review the beginning events of the Civil War • Students will understand the significance of key people, events and battles in the Civil War • Students will complete a document analysis of the Emancipation Proclamation and the Gettysburg Address
Characteristics of the North • Nickname: Union or Yankees • Uniform Color: Blue • Reasons for Fighting: • Preserve the union • End slavery
Advantages of the North • Larger population • Banks/more money available • Industry • Railroads • Established military • Established central government
North: Key Generals You must KNOW Ulysses S. Grant! (I will be President in a few years) President Lincoln fires me after an epic fail. 2) George McClellan 1) Ulysses S. Grant They still curse me in the South. Look at my lovely sideburns… …..wait for it) 3) William T Sherman 4) Ambrose Burnside
Characteristics of the South • Nickname: Confederates • Uniform Color: Grey • Reasons for fighting: • Defend slavery • Defend states’ rights • Preserve their way of life
Advantages of the South • Fighting on home turf • Had a cause to fight for • Strong military leaders (Robert E. Lee) • Knew how to ride horses and use firearms • Possibility of foreign aid (Cotton diplomacy)
South: Key Generals You must KNOW Robert E. Lee – a Virginian and a brilliant general! 2) “Stonewall” Jackson 1) Robert E. Lee Ever driven on Lee-Jackson highway? (Rt 50) Ever been on Pickett Rd in Fairfax? 3) George Pickett
The Civil War Begins • Fort Sumter, SC (April 1861) – First shots fired in the Civil War • Confederates capture Union fort • Virginia secedes 5 days later; splits into two states as a result • Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina follow VA soon after
To secede or not to secede…. • Southern states that seceded from the Union: • South Carolina (SC-1st) • Mississippi (MS) • Florida (FL) • Alabama (AL) • Arkansas (AR) • Tennessee (TN) • Louisiana (LA) • Texas (TX) • Georgia (GA) • Virginia (VA)
To secede or not to secede…. • Border states that still practiced slavery but that remained in the Union: • Delaware (DE) • Kentucky (KY) • Missouri (MO) • Maryland (MD)
Northern strategy: Anaconda Plan 1) Two-pronged blockade of Confederacy’s Atlantic and Gulf coast ports Atlantic ports Gulf ports
Northern strategy: Anaconda Plan 2) Send naval gunboats down Mississippi River to capture New Orleans • This would cut off the south geographically and economically Miss. River
Northern strategy: Anaconda Plan 3) Armies would then capture the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia -BUT the Southern coastline had 180 ports – the Union navy had few ships to spare -Plan was approved by Lincoln but was unsuccessful
Battle of Manassas (Bull Run) • Virginia, 1861: First major battle of the war; Confederate victory • Unionsoldiers march from Washington D.C. towards Richmond • They are cut off by Confederates and retreat towards D.C.
Battle of Manassas (Bull Run) • Before this point, Northerners assumed it would be a quick war; picnickers gathered at the battle site • Outcome: After the battle, both the North and South realized this would be a long and bloody war
Battle of Antietam (MD) • Maryland, 1862: Lee invades the North in an attempt to surprise Washington D.C. • His plans are intercepted by Union troops under General McClellan
You’re fired! • The battle is a stalemate, but the South is able to retreat. • The Union counts it as a victory, but • McClellan is fired for letting Lee get away.
Battle of Antietam Outcomes: • Is considered the bloodiest single day of the Civil War (26,000 + casualties) • Britain decides not to help the South • Gives Lincoln opportunity to issue the Emancipation Proclamation
Emancipation Proclamation • Issued by Lincoln after Union victory at Antietam • Abolished slavery in every Confederate state; however it freed only the slaves in rebellion states • Allowed black soldiers to enlist in the Union army • Gave the North a ‘human cause’ to fight for