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8 th Grade US HISTORY STUDY GUIDE

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  1. 8th Grade US HISTORY STUDY GUIDE STAAR BUSTERS

  2. First English colony in the Americas was established where and in what year • Answer: Jamestown, Virginia 1607

  3. The Declaration of Independence was signed when? • Answer: 1776

  4. The new constitution to replace the Articles of Confederation was presented when? • Answer: 1787

  5. The Louisiana Purchase was made in what year and did what to the size of the U.S. • Answer: 1803 Doubled the size of the United States

  6. The Civil War broke out in the year of _______ and ended in the year of ________. • Answers: Started 1861 Ended 1865

  7. Religious freedom, persecution, profit, land, etc. are reasons for what? • Answers: Coming to America, exploration

  8. The document signed by the Pilgrims, in the year _____, that was an early first step toward self-government was called what? • Answers: Year 1620 Document- The Mayflower Compact

  9. First written constitution in the New World was called ____________ and was written in the year ________. • Answers: Fundamental Orders of Connecticut • Answer: Written in 1639

  10. The first representative government for the English colonies was called what? • Answer: Virginia House of Burgesses

  11. The economic system where colonies are set up to make the mother country rich is called what? • Answer: Mercantilism

  12. After the French and Indian War, Britain took what actions ( several), which enraged the colonists? ANSWER: • Proclamation of 1763, Colonists could not settle in the Ohio Valley • Sugar Act • Stamp Act • Quartering Act • Intolerable Acts • Townsend Act

  13. Patriot leader who was an original Son of Liberty in Boston.( Beer Maker) • Answer: Samuel Adams

  14. Inventor, writer, signer of the Declaration of Independence. Bifocals, Poor Richard’s Almanac, ambassador to France. Who does this describe? • Answer: Benjamin Franklin

  15. Leader of the British government during the American Revolution? (Monarch) • Answer: King George III

  16. Frenchman who volunteered to serve in the American Revolution? • Answer: Marquis De Lafayette

  17. A system for settling the Northwest territory • Answer: Land Ordinance of 1785

  18. A government for the territory that guaranteed basic rights to settlers and outlawed slavery • Answer: Northwest Ordinance

  19. A period when business activity slows, prices and wages fall, and unemployment rises • Answer: Depression

  20. A 1786 revolt in Massachusetts led by farmers in reaction to high taxes • Answer: Shay’s Rebellion

  21. The Constitutional Era is characterized by • Answer: philosophical differences and compromises in forming the new government

  22. What are defining characteristics of the era of the Early Republic • Answer: • Louisiana Purchase • Expansion of national power • War of 1812

  23. How did the War of 1812 affect the standing of the United States in world affairs Answer: the US established its identity as an independent and powerful nation

  24. Which issue would be supported by Thomas Jefferson Answer: an expansion of state’s rights

  25. These problems faced leaders during the early years of the republic • Answer: -defining national government authority -maintaining national security -creating stable economic system

  26. What were three approaches Hamilton used to stabilize the U.S. economy Answer: • Protective tariffs • Repay war debt • Set up national bank

  27. Who was supported by northern merchants and industry, favored strong Federal Government, and was a Federalist Answer: John Adams

  28. What was the result of the passage of the Judiciary Act • Answer: Federal Court system was set up

  29. Why were early political parties developed Answer: there was disagreement over the role and strength of National Government

  30. This action contributed to the beginning of the War of 1812 Answer: impressment of American Sailors into British Navy

  31. John Adam’s administration restricted citizens from criticizing the government Answer: The Alien and Sedition Acts

  32. Stated the United States would not tolerate European intervention in Latin America Answer: Monroe Doctrine

  33. How did Washington’s “Farewell Address” influence American foreign policy Answer: To remain neutral

  34. How did embargo Act of 1807 impact American trade Answer: Both imports and exports fell greatly

  35. How did Federalist interpret the text of the Constitution Answer: loosely according to historic and social changes

  36. When the concept of Judicial Review was first applied, it required that all decisions and interpretations of laws be analyzed according to • Answer: legality under the Constitution

  37. A major domestic problem faced by leaders of the new republic • Answer: Setting up the court system

  38. Leadership qualities a Supreme Court Chief Justice, such as John Marshall, need in order to be effective • Answer: Ability to discuss issues logically and make well reasoned arguments

  39. 1803 landmark case which formed the basis for the exercise of Judicial review and was the first to declare a government action unconstitutional • Answer: Marbury v. Madison

  40. Are the most factors a judge uses when conducting a Judicial Review of a government action • Answer: Rules and laws set forth in the US Constitution

  41. This factor determines the number of electoral votes for each state • Answer: states with higher populations have more electoral votes

  42. In the Executive Branch, the President may veto bills

  43. In the Judicial Branch, the Supreme Court may determine actions unconstitutional

  44. First battle of the Revolution- “shot heard round the world” • Answer: Lexington and Concord

  45. Turning point of the Revolutionary War? • Answer: Battle of Saratoga

  46. Father of our country, first President, leader of the Continental Army, who does this describe? • Answer: George Washington

  47. Ending battle where Cornwallis surrendered? • Answer: Battle of Yorktown

  48. First American government after independence established in what year? • Answer: Articles of Confederation • Answer: 1777

  49. Which form of democracy was decided upon when the Constitution was written • Ans: Republic

  50. Why is the year 1787 so important in U.S. history? • Ans: The Constitution was written