Disaster Risk Reduction: concepts, components and points of entry Disaster risk reduction and risk transfer: toward concrete action in South Asia and East Asia and the Pacific Bangkok, Thailand, 28-30 April, 2008 Margaret Arnold ProVention Consortium
Natural hazards • Natural processes or phenomena occurring in the biosphere that may constitute a damaging event, i.e., cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation. • Hazardous events can vary in magnitude or intensity, frequency, duration, area of extent, speed of onset, spatial dispersion and temporal spacing.
Geological hazards • Internal earth processes or tectonic origin, such as earthquakes, geological fault activity, tsunamis, volcanic activity and emissions as well as external processes such as mass movements: landslides, rockslides, rock falls or avalanches, surfaces collapses, expansive soils and debris or mud flows. • Geological hazards can be single, sequential or combined in their origin and effects.
Hydrometeorological • Natural processes or phenomena of atmospheric, hydrological or oceanographic nature, which may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation. • E.g.: floods, debris and mud floods; tropical cyclones, storm surges, thunder/hailstorms, rain and wind storms, blizzards and other severe storms; drought, desertification, wildland fires, temperature extremes, sand or dust storms; permafrost and snow or ice avalanches.
Biological • Processes of organic origin or those conveyed by biological vectors, including exposure to pathogenic micro-organisms, toxins and bioactive substances, which may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation. • Examples of biological hazards: outbreaks of epidemic diseases, plant or animal contagion, insect plagues and extensive infestations.
Disaster Impacts • Economic: direct, indirect and macroeconomic • Social and environmental harder to quantify: • Loss of life • Environmental degradation • Loss of natural habitats and destruction of ecosystems • Disruption of communities and family life • Loss of cultural heritage assets • Unemployment • Migration • Differential gender impact and impacts on vulnerable groups
Terminology Timeline EMERGENCY RESPONSE----PREPAREDNESS--------DISASTER MGMT------DRM------DRR------------CC ADAPTATION
Defining Disaster Risk Reduction • Not yet a global consensus on the use and definitions of DM and DRR terminology. • UN ISDR has tried to promote harmonization of terms: see: www.unisdr.org/eng/library/lib-terminology-eng home.htm • But: conflicting use of terms by different organizations continues. • Common-sense principles: • Keep definitions and concepts simple. • Use concrete examples if definitions are difficult to explain. • Be consistent and clear when using a term.
Defining Disaster Risk Reduction Disaster Risk Reduction “The development and application of policies, strategies and practices to do everything possible before a disaster occurs to protect lives, limit damage and strengthen the capacity of communities and society to recover quickly.”
Hazards x Vulnerability=Risk VULNERABILITY: The conditions determined by physical, social, economic, and environmental factors or processes, which increase the susceptibility of a community to the impact of hazards. RISK: The probability of harmful consequences, or expected losses resulting from interactions between natural hazards and vulnerable conditions.
WB Entry Points for DRR • Policy dialogue – CAS, PRSP • “Building back better” - Improved response to disaster emergencies and more effective reconstruction and recovery • Stand alone investments for disaster risk management • Integrating DRR into development investments - “pure” mainstreaming
DRR after disaster • Relief, rehabilitation/reconstruction should also aim at contributing to the reduction of vulnerability and should avoid reconstructing risk. • In the response phase, this means: • Use relief not only to meet immediate needs but also to restore livelihood assets and rebuild livelihoods (cash- and food-for-work). • Build on/up survivor’s capacities. • Build on local institutions. • Avoid aid dependency. • Use participatory approaches. • Take the opportunity to create positive change and not merely return to pre-disaster vulnerability levels.
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies Stand alone investments in DRR • DRR as a new business line • Specific investments in DRR capacity • Examples: Institutional arrangements/capacity building for emergency response, disaster preparedness, early warning systems, structural (physical) and non-structural measures undertaken to limit disaster impacts---retrofitting, dike construction, hazard-resistant house construction, planting mangroves, drainage channels, water conservation measures
Mainstreaming for safe development • Ensuring that standard investments contribute to vulnerability reduction and meet certain safety standards International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
Risk Accumulation ‘Vicious spirals’ of disaster risk and development failure Failed Development Source : DFIDDisaster risk reduction: a development concern, http://www.dfid.gov.uk/pubs/files/drr-scoping-study.pdf Disaster Losses
Risk reduction ‘Virtuous spirals’ of risk reduction Development Source : DFIDDisaster risk reduction: a development concern, http://www.dfid.gov.uk/pubs/files/drr-scoping-study.pdf Appropriate emergency response and reconstruction