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Battle Focus Training 8 Step Training Model References FM 7.0 Training the Force FM 7.1 Battle Focus Training FM 5.0 Army Planning and Orders Production Training in all its phases… must be intelligently directed so that every individual [soldier] including the last private in the ranks, can understand the reasons for the exertions he is called upon to make. - General Dwight D. Eisenhower
Why Train? • The U. S. Army exists for one reason—to serve the Nation. From the earliest • days of its creation, the Army has embodied and defended the American way • of life and its constitutional system of government. It will continue to answer the • call to fight and win our Nation’s wars, whenever and wherever they may occur. • That is the Army’s non-negotiable contract with the American people. • Today, the Army must meet the challenge of a wider range of threats and a more • complex set of operating environments while incorporating new and diverse technology. The Army meets these challenges through its core (METL) competencies: • Shape the Security Environment • Respond Promptly to Crisis • Mobilize the Army • Conduct Forcible Entry Operations • Sustained Land Dominance • Provide Support to Civil Authorities • We must maintain combat readiness as our primary focus while transitioning to a more agile, versatile, lethal, and survivable Army.
Training Challenges Training for warfighting readiness is the Army’s number one priority in peace and war… Personnel turbulence, key-leader turnover, high operating tempo (OPTEMPO), and new equipment and systems fielding present a demanding set of training challenges. Resources for training are not unconstrained—they compete with other resource demands. Time is the inelastic resource—there is never enough, and it cannot be increased. All leaders must focus training on warfighting skills, and make that training the priority. Compliance training and non-mission activities are lower priority. If training cannot be conducted to standard, then commanders use readiness reports to inform the Army’s leadership of the risks being assumed. FM 7-1
Training Management • Training management is a continuous process. It consists of four phases: • Planning • Resourcing • Executing • Assessing • All four phases occur simultaneously. For example, as the training for the • next year is being planned, resources for the next month are being obtained • and distributed. Concurrently, training is being conducted and evaluated. • Evaluation provides feedback to training managers, trainers, and various • support agencies. This feedback affects future plans, resource actions, • and current unit training.
8 Step Training Model As it Relates to Training Management PLANNING RESOURCING EXECUTION STEP 1: Plan the Training STEP 2: Train & Certify Leaders STEP 3: Conduct Recon STEP 4: Issue the Plan STEP 5: Rehearse STEP 6: Execute the Training ASSESSING STEP 7: Conduct AARs STEP 8: Retrain to Standard
Plan the Training This first step is the key to developing battle-focused training. - FC REG 350-2, Appendix E Planning is the means by which the commander envisions a desired outcome, lays out effective ways of achieving it, and communicates to his subordinates his vision, intent, and decisions, focusing on the results he expects to achieve. FM 5.0 If you fail to plan you plan to fail! A risk assessment parallels the training assessment. It identifies training proficiency shortfalls that could create a hazard and prevent achievement of the training objectives.
Plan the Training “Who.” —Identify the units, staffs, leaders, and individual soldiers to be trained. “What.” — Specify the training objectives and the types of training events. — Link training objectives to the METL with specific criticalcollective, leader, and individual soldier tasks. “When.” — Specify sequence of the training tasks and events. — Consider crawl and walk stages of training and individual soldier training needs required prior to run stage of training events. “Where.” —Coordinate ranges, training areas, simulations and simulators, and other essential equipment to support identified training tasks and events. Back-brief higher commander on major training events. —Brief higher headquarters on major events (FTXs, CPXs, etc.). —Provide detailed objectives, scenarios, support requirements, and timelines. —Provide initial risk management assessment.
Train & Certify Leaders Competent and confident leaders build cohesive organizations with a strong chain of command, high morale, and good discipline. • Institution: • Institutional training and education enhances military • knowledge, individual potential, initiative, and competence in warfighting skills. • Operational: • Soldier and leader training and development continue in the unit. Using the institutional foundation, training in • organizations and units focuses and hones individual and • team skills and knowledge. • Self-Development: • The gravity of our profession requires comprehensive • self-study and training. In no other profession is the cost of being unprepared so high. Skills, Knowledge, Abilities Be – Know – Do MOSQ IADT CTC AWT OPD/NCODP NCOES Licensing, Certifications, Qualifications, Functional Training
Train & Certify Leaders Train the trainers. Identify leaders, trainers, evaluators, OCs, and OPFOR to be trained to standard and rehearsed prior to the conduct of training. Prepare leaders, trainers, evaluators, OCs, and OPFOR to evaluate leader, unit, staff, and individual soldier performance in accordance with specific ARTEP-MTP or soldier MOS-specific task(s). Prepare OPFOR leaders and units to replicate desired threat situations; designated OPFOR leaders and units should use specific ARTEP-MTP or soldier MOS-specific tasks. Allocate time Prepare Yourself Prepare the resources Prepare the soldier
Conduct Recon Conduct a reconnaissance of the range and/or training site to ensure it meets the requirements for the exercise Execute “rock drills” and “walk-throughs” for trainers, evaluators, OCs, and the OPFOR, as required. Conduct risk management/assessment. Leaders/Trainers must be familiarized with the site in order to facilitate successful training execution Proper Reconnaissance allows leaders to further develop plans and be prepared for contingencies and changing conditions
Issue the Plan Clearly identify the responsibilities for the conduct of the training. Issue the training plan as an OPORD, training directive, or training schedule. The OPORD must be complete, concise, and include all the necessary details The order must be publish in a timely manner to allow participants time to prepare A timely 80% solution is much better than a late, 100 percent solution
Rehearse Conduct rehearsals for trainers, evaluators, OCs, and the OPFOR. Allocate time on the training schedule for adequate rehearsals. Conduct pre-execution checks. Continue informal planning and detailed coordination until the training is conducted. Ensure that the chain of command identifies and fixes responsibility for PCC/PCI checks. Continue coordination during training meeting. Include preparation of individuals to be trained, trainers who will execute and evaluate training, and training support required. Ensure that all planning and prerequisite training (leader, collective, and individual soldier) is conducted prior to the execution of training. Provide attention to detail needed to use resources efficiently.
Execute the Training Performance-oriented, standards- based training is the result of detailed planning and preparation. The proper execution of training to standard is a rewarding process. It places a significant burden on The trainer in terms of preparation and evaluation of performance. The payoff for properly executed training is a unit trained to standard on its wartime operational mission. FM 7-1 pg 5-64 Execution is the art of getting things done. Excellence is getting it done right!
Execute the Training Trainers use the appropriate combination of demonstrations, conferences, discussions, and practice activities to present training. Using the crawl-walk-run approach, they inform individuals being trained of the training objectives (tasks, conditions, and standards) and applicable evaluation methods. They immediately follow presentation with practice to convert information into usable individual and collective skills.
Conduct AARs The after action review (AAR) provides feedback for all training. The AAR is a structured review process that allows training participants to discover for themselves what happened, why it happened, and how it can be done better. The AAR is a professional discussion that requires the active participation of those being trained. The AAR is not a critique. It has the following advantages over a critique: Focuses directly on key, METL-derived training objectives. Emphasizes meeting Army standards rather than pronouncing judgment of success or failure (AARs do not determine winners or losers). Uses leading questions to encourage participants to self-discover important lessons from the training event. Allows a large number of soldiers and leaders (including OPFOR) to participate so that more of the training can be recalled, and more lessons learned can be shared.
Conduct AARs Review what was supposed to happen (training plan). The evaluator, along with the participants, reviews what was supposed to happen based on the commander’s intent for the training event, unit training plan, training objectives, and applicable T&EOs. Establish what happened. The evaluator and the participants determine what actually happened during performance of the training task. A factual and indisputable account is vital to the effectiveness of the discussion that follows. For force on force training, OPFOR members assist in describing the flow of the training event and discuss training outcomes from their points of view. Determine what was right or wrong with what happened. The participants establish the strong and weak points of their performance. The evaluator plays a critical role in guiding the discussions so that conclusions reached by participants are doctrinally sound, consistent with Army standards, and relevant to the wartime mission. Determine how the task should be done differently next time. The evaluator assists the chain of command undergoing the training to lead the group in determining exactly how participants will perform differently the next time the task is performed. This results in organizational and individual motivation to conduct future sustainment training to standard.
Retrain to Standard The complexity of the conditions is increased as soldier performance levels increase, while the standard remains constant. Soldiers and leaders must execute the planned training, evaluate performance, and retrain until the Army standard is achieved under the most realistic conditions possible. They must evaluate and reinforce individual skills at each opportunity. Tasks and Conditions may change – standards do not! Once individuals and units have trained to the required level of proficiency, leaders must structure individual and collective training strategies to retrain critical tasks at the minimum frequency necessary for sustainment. Sustainment training is the key to maintain unit proficiency through, for example, personnel turbulence, operational deployments, and NET. ARTEP-MTPs and STPs are tools to help achieve and sustain collective and individual proficiency.
Summary In no other profession are the penalties for employing untrained personnel so appalling or so irrevocable as in the military. General Douglas MacArthur “Training … is the Army’s number one priority in peace and war” The more you sweat in training, the less you bleed in war. Chinese Proverb