Oil Field Safety Bill Luther, APS-FSR
Unsafe Act or Unsafe Condition
Introduction • This orientation is concerned with SAFETY IN THE OILFIELD, not the mechanical aspects of oilfield work. • This orientation includes: • SAFETY PROGRAM, • INSPECTIONS/AUDITS, • SAFETY MEETINGS, • HAZARD AWARENESS, • HAZARD ABATEMENT, • ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION, • ACCIDENT REPORTING • PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
Discussions include: Inspection techniques Hazard Recognition Hazard Awareness Hazard Abatement Lockout-Tagout Haz-Com General H2S Info Investigations
This orientation is to help acquaint those personnel with oilfield safety rules, regulations and/or procedures, particular to this company.
SAFETY…..is part of everyday living. It is an important consideration for everyone in everything he/she does, in the home, at work or play, on streets and highways – wherever he/she goes. Safe operating practices and procedures are vital in the drilling business because the work is hazardous, involving massive machinery, heavy tools and great physical strength. When accidents do occur, the work can be a serious danger to life and limb. Drilling personnel must know how to work safely on a rig in order to protect themselves, costly rig equipment, and the expensive hole being drilled.
Everyone loses from an accident. Injuries result in pain and suffering and may leave a person disabled or handicapped for life. Even minor injuries may cause loss of time from work and lost pay. Insurance benefits are helpful, but compensation payments cannot restore a life, hand, eye or leg. Damaged machinery and equipment can usually be repaired but almost always at considerable cost, particularly if down time is taken into account. An expensive well may be lost because of the oversight of the incompetence of one person. Blowouts and fires cause losses of life and equipment and waste precious oil and gas from underground reservoirs.
More than 90 % of all accidents are avoidable, being caused by human error rather than by mechanical failure. It is extremely important that every person on a drilling rig develop a sense of safety in drilling operations. That person must use this sense in combination with the kind of good judgment it takes to drive a car safely, or to do anything else in a safe manner.
Vocabulary Listing of select vocabulary words • ANSI – American National Standards Institute. • Approved – Sanctioned, endorsed, accredited, certified, or accepted by a duly constituted and recognized authority or agency. • Authorized Person – A person approved or assigned by the employer to perform a specific type of duty or duties or to be at a specific location or locations at the job site.
Vocabulary – cont’d • Competent Person – One who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surround or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employers and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them, or who can recommend directly to persons in authority that such corrective measures be taken.
Vocabulary – cont’d • Guarded – Covered, shielded, fenced, enclosed, or otherwise protected by means of suitable covers, or casings, barrier rails, safety bars, or screens to eliminate the possibility of accidental contact with, or dangerous approach by persons or objects. • Hazard – Any occupational condition or circumstance which is likely to cause death, injury or illness.
Vocabulary – cont’d • Hazardous Substance – one by reason of being explosive, flammable, poisonous, corrosive, oxidizing, irritating, or otherwise harmful, is likely to cause occupational death, injury or illness. • Qualified–one who by possession of a recognize degree certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training and experience has successfully demonstrated ability to solve or resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the work, or the project.
Vocabulary – cont’d • Should – means recommended. • Suitable – that which fits, and has the qualities or qualifications to meet a given purpose, occasion, condition, function or circumstance. • Supervisor – person who has been given control, direction and/or supervision of work provided by one or more employees.
Vocabulary – cont’d • Variance – an exception to a promulgated standard, rule or regulation granted by the Department of Labor, or appropriate agency. • Well Servicing – any action or work other than the original drilling of the well, related, but not limited to the completion, re-completion, down hold maintenance, or termination of the well.
Oil Company/Operator – Has control of the casing and the mud program being followed drilling the well. Drilling Contractor – Head of drilling operation. Determines the overall safety practices/policies and the manner in which a safety program is carried out by the various supervisors. Drilling Superintendent – Represents top management of the drilling contractor. Supervises the operations of several rigs in the area. Tool pusher – Directly responsible to the drilling superintendent for carrying out work assigned to the rig. Supervise all personnel, ensures machinery is in a safe operating condition. Investigates each accident or injury to determine its cause.
Driller – Works directly under the tool pusher. Responsible for work of the crew and operation of the rig. The driller sets the pump speed and pressure, operates the draw works and rotary and manipulates the controls to operate the rotary and drill stem to make hole. Crew Members – Must work for safety as a team! Must kne his/her job and stay constantly alert to what is going on. Use PPE. Use proper tools. Learn to foresee and prevent accidents. Use stairs and ladders as intended.
A Sampling of OSHA Violations & Standards Cited • Employee riding the traveling blocks – 5(a)(1) 2. No geronimo line from monkey board – 5 (a)(1) 3. Floor holes in rig floor/crown walk around-1910.23(a) 4. Safety goggles not clean and in good repair-1910.133 5. Break Out Tongs – wire clips had U-bolt on live end of line. 5(a)(1) 6. Kelly hose not secured with chains 5(a)(1) 7. V-Door opening not guarded-1910.23
OSHA STANDARDS OSHA’s general industry standards do not adequately address a number of hazards unique to the industry. Yet, OSHA is issuing citations for hazards under the GENERAL DUTY CLAUSE (Sec 5(a)(1)
UNIQUE HAZARDS TO THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY Poor Machine Guarding Catheads Rotary Tables Falls Gases Tripping Slipping High Pressure Hoses
Health and Safety Procedures And, the interaction of each with the other!! Always give careful consideration to: Man….. Machine….. Environment…..
Health and Safety Procedures Some elements of a GOOD safety program Management policy Employee selection/placement Employee orientation/training Educational activities Employee meetings Inspections Accident reporting Safety responsibilities
New Mexico based land drilling rig. If you are the oilrig man and weather like this is approaching, what do you do?
Hazards are generally grouped into two (2) broad categories: • Safety and Injury Hazards • Health and Illnesses Hazards. • Always remember to include hazards that involve property • and Environmental damage.
TONGS – SPINNING CHAIN Cut off fingers, thumbs Smashed fingers, hands etc TEAM WORK !! Be a Team, Work Together Watch out for each other
What Causes Injuries? Acts of Unsafe God Conditions 2% 20% 20% 78 % Unsafe Acts 78% UNSAFE CONDITIONS UNSAFE ACTS ACTS OF GOD • Texas Workers’ Compensation Insurance Fund 2001
Recognition of Hazards • Identify unsafe acts and conditions • Determine the corrective actions • Implement corrective actions • Texas Workers’ Compensation Insurance Fund 2001
Hazard Identification: (examples) Danger of striking against, being struck by, or making contact with an object? Are rotating equipment or other projections exposed Nip points, such as a belt, sheave, chain, gear? Reciprocating movement to be caught on or between ? Hand/arm contact with moving parts at the point of operation?
Material kick back or ejection from the point of operation? Machine controls safeguarded ? Do machines vibrate, move, or walk while in operation? Parts to become loose or lodged during operation. Guards positioned or adjusted ? Bypass guard or lockout device?
Machines/equipment receive regular maintenance? Machines operations sufficient for safe work? Room for maintenance operations? Materials being handled adequately for work? Are tools, jigs, work fixtures stored not to interfere with work? Work area well illuminated. Ventilation adequate. PPE used ? Housekeeping satisfactory? Energy sources controlled for maintenance?
Can you find the hazard(s)? 4 2 3 1
How Hazards are Controlled At its source. Along its path. (erect a barricade between the hazard and the worker.) At the worker. (remove the worker from the exposure, such as automated/remote controls, worker rotation, providing PPE when all options have been exhausted.) Monitoring activities (locate new hazards and assess the effectiveness of existing controls.)
Preventative and Corrective Measures • The implementation of Control Measures: • 1. Administrative (through personnel, management, monitoring, limiting worker exposure, measuring performance, training and education, housekeeping and maintenance, purchasing.) • Engineering (isolation of source, lockout procedure, design, process or procedural changes, monitoring and warning equipment, chemical or material substitution.) • 3. PPE (body protection, fall protection.)
IT’S THE LAW ! In the State of Texas, all persons working in the oil field where H2S concentrations are known MUST complete a H2S certification course annually. The objective is to educate employees about the physical & chemical properties, toxicity, concentration levels, personal protective equipment use, detection measures, rescue and first aid. The best way way to reduce the chance of employee exposure to H2S is to provided the best possible training, provide appropriate personal protective equipment, and ensure employs follow the correct work procedures, rules and requirements.
COMMON SOURCES OF H2S Naturally in nature Oil Fields – Mines – Volcanoes –Geothermal Exploration Through decay of organic matter Fishing industry – Tanneries - Manure Processing Municipal sewers - Brewery Industry – Landfills Chemical Processes By Product – Catalyst – Felt Making – Asphalt Roofing
H2S or Toxic Gas Exposure Hydrogen Sulfide – characterized by an odor of rotten eggs. A very small concentration can be fatal. When encountered, employees must wear approved type masks when their work requires them to be exposed to the gas,in any way.
H2S or Toxic Gas Exposure Hydrogen Sulfide is highly toxic, colorless, and heavier than air. It has the odor of rotten eggs, initially. Most frequently encountered in the production and refining of high sulfur petroleum and in natural gas. It burns with a blue flame and produces Sulfur Dioxide. It forms an explosive mixture with air. The LFL is 4.3% and the UFL is 45.5%.
H2S or Toxic Gas Exposure Its odor is NOT a reliable warning signal because higher concentrations of the gas temporarily destroys the sense of smell. This is the primary reason for employees not detecting the presence of H2S and consequently inhaling a lethal amount. The only positive means is by testing with an approved H2S detector. DO NOT RELY SOLELY ON THE SENSE OF SMELL!
H2S or Toxic Gas Exposure General Procedures Any area where H2S has been reported or encountered, or where the is insufficient oxygen, there should be NO entry until sufficient tests have bee made to determine the extent of the hazard and the area is purged to reduce the hazard to allowable concentrations.