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Structural Collapse Technician Training

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Structural Collapse Technician Training

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  1. Structural Collapse Technician Training Appendix ASearch Capabilities Jan09

  2. TERMINAL OBJECTIVES • The student shall understand the capabilities of the US&R Task Force Search Team. • The student shall be prepared to function as the Rescue Specialist member of a Search Team

  3. ENABLING OBJECTIVES • Discuss the Rapid Recon process • Understand the advantages and disadvantages of the various search methods and tools used by a US&R Task Force • Understand the basics of search strategy for the Detection and Location of Victims

  4. INTRODUCTION • Search & Rescue needs close interaction of all Task Force elements • Search starts early and continues to the end of the incident • Search consists of Detection and Location • Many tools and methods are available • Some are better at either Detection or Location – Some do well at both • Need to understand the advantages and disadvantages of each tool

  5. SEARCH STRATEGY & PRIORITIZATION • Search used in the past to prioritize a multi-building incident – too slow • Structure Triage – also too slow • Intended to pre-prioritize bldgs for search teams • New Rapid Recon Process • Recon Team, Followed by Search Teams • Time of incident vs. Occupancy may be critical • Prioritization may be done by others or by Task Force

  6. Original RECON TEAM • Search Team Manager • Two Canine Search Specialists • Technical Search Specialist • Medical Specialist • Structural Specialist • Hazmat Specialist • Two Rescue Specialists

  7. NEW, RAPID RECON – 3 Phases • Assessment Team • Struct & Hazmat Spec + Tech Info Spec & Search Tm Mgr • Quick Assessment of a few buildings at a time • Initial prioritization • Victim Detection Team • STM, 2 - K9 Teams, Tech Search, 2 - Rescue, Med Spec, Struct Spec, Hazmat Spec • Victim Detection & detailed Hazard Assessment • Victim Location Team • STM, 2 – K9 Teams, Tech Search, 2 – Rescue, Med Spec, possibly Struct & Hazmat Spec (from detection Team) • Victim Location, Initial Treatment, & start rescue

  8. SEARCH TEAM EQUIPMENT • Electric hammer drills • Electronic viewing equipment • Electronic listening equipment • Atmospheric monitoring equipment • Marking materials • Structure Evaluate equip • Distance, laser range finder • Height, clinometer • Recording devices

  9. SEARCH TEAM EQUIPMENT • Bull horn for hailing - air horn for signaling • Medical pack • Personal gear • Water • Safety equipment • Canine • Search & Recon equipment needs to be loaded in position to be unloaded among “First Off” items

  10. PHYSICAL VOID SEARCH • Advantages • No special equipment required • People easily trained to support effort

  11. PHYSICAL VOID SEARCH • Disadvantages • Limited access to voids • May be dangerous • Will not locate unconscious, weak, young

  12. AUDIBLE CALL-OUT • Advantages • No special equipment required • People easily trained to support effort • Searchers can inform victim of response • Can be used with listening device

  13. AUDIBLE CALL-OUT • Disadvantages • Will not locate unconscious, weak, young • Sound of knocking may be too weak for audible detection

  14. VISUAL SEARCH DEVICESMostly used for location • Flexible Fiberscopes • Rigid Borescopes • Video Search Cameras

  15. FLEXIBLE FIBERSCOPES

  16. FLEXIBLE FIBERSCOPES

  17. RIGID BORESCOPES

  18. FIBERSCOPES & BORESCOPES • Advantages • Finds position & condition of victim • Useful to verify other search tactics just prior to starting rescue operations • Used to monitor victim during rescue • Disadvantages • Difficult to use in extended holes due to flexible cable, limited length of rigid scope, and limited light sources

  19. SEARCH CAMERAS • Video camera • Video Cable • Video display • CRT - older • LCD - newer

  20. SEARCH CAMERAS SearchCam • Original unit • Pole mounted 1 3/4” camera • 7” BW/CRT • Mic/Speaker • Built-in light source

  21. Newer Unit Power controls Articulating head Variable LED light Two-way audio Extendable probe 2- LED screen ports Interchangeable batteries SEARCH CAMERAS SearchCam SearchCam® 2000 Courtesy of Search Systems Incorporated

  22. SEARCH CAMERAS Zistos WalkAbout

  23. Dual Thermal Head Thermal Video

  24. Manual articulation LED light head LED screen Rechargeable battery Waterproof Flexible Lower cost SEARCH CAMERAS Snake-Eye

  25. SEARCH CAMERAS • Advantages • Easily understood • Possibility to record picture • Useful to verify other search tactics just prior to starting rescue operations • Used to monitor victim during rescue • Disadvantages • Size, cost, and power requirements • Straight line of sight

  26. INFRARED/THERMA IMAGING

  27. INFRARED/THERMAL IMAGING • Advantages • Equipment often locally available • Can be used to survey large, open, dark areas • Disadvantages • Cannot detect heat difference through solids • Sources other than human can be detected

  28. ELECTRONIC LISTENING DEVICES

  29. Sensor Attachment

  30. ELECTRONIC LISTENING DEVICES • Advantages • Able to cover large area as a Detector • Can triangulate on victim position • Capable of picking up faint noise/vibration • Used in conjunction w/other search tools to verify find

  31. ELECTRONIC LISTENING DEVICES • Disadvantages • Unconscious victims not detected • Ambient nose level may need to be lowered • Victim needs to create noise pattern • Limited range (acoustic=25ft, seismic=75ft) • Can be used to locate victims, but may be relatively slow

  32. ELECTRONIC LISTENING DEVICES • All Task Forces have these devices • Listen to acoustic or seismic vibration • Normally deploy two or more sensors • Hailing device used to get victim response • Can Detect if live victim is in structure

  33. ELECTRONIC LISTENING DEVICES • May Locate proper layer in pancake collapse • Takes time to Locate victims - move sensors • Compared signals only good if sensors are matched and anchored in similar materials • Sensors best in solid/dense materials

  34. ELECTRONIC LISTENING DEVICES • Can use two sensors to Locate victims by keeping strong signal in place and moving other in circle. • More difficult to Locate victim in collapsed structures containing different materials w/different degrees of fracture • Second operator should be used to confirm

  35. CANINE SEARCH West Coast, Undisciplined, Document Shredding Type

  36. CANINE SEARCH K9 can be used in physical search, but are mostly used for their noses not to stand on their Tippy-toses’es

  37. CANINE BASICS • Dogs use keen sense of smell to differentiate scent • find marijuana in gas tank • Can be trained to detect/indicate the difference between live victim, dead, food, other animals • Essential to deploy only well trained canine • K9 needs to have been trained to work in the collapsed structure environment. • K9 normally Detect and Locate victims simultaneously • Detection may require Interpretation by a well trained Handler

  38. DISASTER CANINE TRAINING • Requires special training beyond Normal SAR K9 • Alert system - Bark & Dig • Agility • Direction & control • Collapsed structure environment

  39. DISASTER CANINE TRAINING • Requires at least 2 years to Train a Disaster Dog • 200+ FEMA Certified K9 • Need min of 4 K9 per TF x 3 • Total for 28 TFs =336 • Many TF have adequate numbers of K9

  40. CANINE SEARCH STRATEGY • Search Mgr, Tech Search Spec, and Canine Spec survey site to determine overall strategy • Need to consider: • Time of day & temperature • Type & direction of wind • Size of search area & type of collapse

  41. CANINE SEARCH STRATEGY • Site normally divided into small sectors • Trained to bark & dig at scent source • Search Mgr needs to draw crude map to record location of finds, etc

  42. CANINE SEARCH TACTICS • From safe zone, 1st Canine Search Team deploys to free search sector • If no alerts, directs canine in fine grid search • Search Mgr & 2nd Canine Search Team observe from different vantage points • If 1st Canine Search Team has alerts or not, 2nd Canine Search Team will repeat & verify 1st team’s results

  43. CANINE SEARCH TACTICS (continued) • Alert is marked only after confirmation by a 2nd team. • Remaining sectors are searched & marked until entire are is covered. • Scent channels around solid slabs, etc & canine will indicate where scent is emerging, not necessarily where victim is precisely located.

  44. CANINE SEARCH TACTICS (cont.) • Scent tends to raise evenly through broken rubble & lighter structures • Continued re-searching of structure as it is accessed/uncovered will give best results

  45. WORKING CONDITIONS • Best: • Dawn, dusk • Cool weather • Light winds • Stable rubble • Light rain

  46. Sometimes Conditions Are NOT going to be Good

  47. WORKING CONDITIONS • Difficult • Hot weather (above 90F) • Mid-day with temps above 80F • Strong wind and no wind • Snow/ice made slippery footing/hides surfaces • Firefighting foam & other chemicals

  48. CANINE PROS • Advantages: • Search large area in shortest time • Can gain access to hidden areas • Can work in dangerous areas • Can detect unconscious victims

  49. CANINE CONS • Disadvantages: • Rest periods • Use of two to confirm • Performance may vary • Uncertified to certified • Basic to advanced • Handler to handler • Scarce resource

  50. ELECTRONIC & CANINE SEARCH COMBINATION • Mexico City 1985 Quake had success using crude electronics with K9. • Most common combo is to use electronics to Detect and K9 to Locate. • In large pancake concrete collapse, electronic may be able to indicate which level contains victim, canine to pinpoint on that level.