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Chapter 8 MEMORY

Chapter 8 MEMORY

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Chapter 8 MEMORY

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  1. Chapter 8MEMORY

  2. possible positive characteristic of no memory • No painful recollections so they won’t have anger

  3. MEMORY • Persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information

  4. David Myers father and son • Dad could not lay down new memories but had a large ability to remember

  5. Haber’s study • After seeing faces for 10 seconds we are able to recognize 90% later

  6. Unconscious recognition • This is an elephant. You would no for sure if you had seen the full figure earlier because you would remember the similar shape

  7. Encoding • Processing of information into the memory system

  8. Storage • Retention of encoded information over time

  9. retrieval • Process of getting information out of memory storage • Receive email

  10. Atkinson and Schiffrin • Sensory memory • Short-term memory • Long-term memory

  11. Sensory memory • Immediate very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system Momentary photographic memory When George Sperling flashed a group of letters similar to this for one-twentieth of a second, people could recall only about half of the letters. But when signaled to recall a particular row immediately after the letters had disappeared, they could do so with near-perfect accuracy.

  12. short-term memory • activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten

  13. long-term memory • the relatively permanent and limitless store-house of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences

  14. automatic processing • Unconscious encoding of incidental information (space, time, frequency) and of well-learned information (word meaning)

  15. effortful processing • Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort

  16. rehearsal • The conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it unconsciously or to encode it for storage

  17. Ebbinghaus’ study • The more he practiced nonsense syllables on day one , the less he needed to learn on day 2 • The more time we spend learning novel information, the more we retain

  18. spacing effect • The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice

  19. Why is giving a student 4-5 days to study important? • They will be able to retain more information due to the spacing effect

  20. Testing effect • Repeatedly being tested –more learning than practice

  21. beat cramming • Space out your study to retain more information • Self-assessment

  22. serial position effect • Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list

  23. advice to Spanish teacher • They should put the hardest words first • The next difficult words at the end • The easiest words in the middle

  24. recency • Last items are still in working memory, and people briefly recall them especially quickly and well

  25. primary effect • After a delay, recall is best for the first items

  26. visual encoding • Encoding of picture images

  27. acoustic encoding • Encoding of sound (especially words)

  28. semantic encoding • Encoding of meaning (including the meaning of words)

  29. Wickelgren • The time you spend thinking about material, reading, and relating it to previously stored material

  30. self reference effect • Relating new information to previously stored material or experiences

  31. imagery • Mental pictures; powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding

  32. Imagery in visual encoding • It allows us to remember it longer because instead of thinking about it we know exactly what it looks like

  33. rosy retrospection • People tend to recall events more positively than they judged them at the time

  34. Why might a vacation you did not like seem better now than before? • You will most likely just remember the high points

  35. mnemonic device • Memory aids; especially these techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices

  36. peg-word system • Memorized jingly so you can count by peg words. We are able to visually associate other things with peg words

  37. chunking • Organizing items into familiar, manageable units, often occurs automatically • EXAMPLES: chess master (recall positions quickly)

  38. How is chunking applied • Creating a word (a form of chunking) to learn it better ROY G BIV


  40. Bower • Organization helps to recall time and accuracy

  41. iconic memory • Momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli, photographic/picture; image memory lasts no more than a few tenths of a second

  42. Sperling’s • Showed all available for recall but only for a couple seconds. Tone sound for which line to read but if delayed recall less.

  43. echoic memory • Momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds

  44. How can a teacher can get tricked? • Kids can recall the last few words because they were unconsciously listening

  45. Peterson and Peterson • After 3 seconds only recalled half of the time after 12 seconds they seldom recalled any of it

  46. George Miller’s 7 plus or minus 2 • STM can usually store 7 pieces of information (give of take 2)

  47. Could people my age remember phone numbers with area codes prior to cell phones? • No, because it is out of the number of short term memory (10 numbers instead of 9)

  48. RajanMadhevan’s memory • Repeat 50 random digits backward • Could recite pi with prompt of 10 numbers

  49. Lashley • Memories are not stored in only one spot