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Plant Diversity

Plant Diversity

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Plant Diversity

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  1. Plant Diversity I. Importance of plants II. Science of Life A. Taxonomic categories B. Species concept C. Domains of life D. Kingdoms of Eukarya E. Viruses III. Major plant groups A. Non- vascular plants B. Vascular plants 1. Spore producing 2. Seed producing IV. Plant Evolution

  2. Erosion control Primary producers I. Importance of plants

  3. I. Importance of plants

  4. I. Importance of plants

  5. I. Importance of plants

  6. I. Importance of plants

  7. A. Taxonomic categories Prokaryotes Domains Kingdom Eukaryotes nucleus Division Protista Order Family Genus DNA (genera) Species chromosomes Pine Tridentate bracts Pseudotsuga menziesii

  8. Questions Which of the following is a difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes? a. eukaryotes have DNA- prokaryotes don’t b. eukaryotes have a nucleus- prokaryotes don’t c. prokaryotes have DNA- eukaryotes don’t d. prokaryotes have a nucleus- eukaryotes don’t • In what plant family is Douglas fir? • Monocot • Dicot • Conifer • Pine • What feature distinguishes Douglas fir from all other conifers? • Needle like leaves • Evergreen • Tridentate bracts • Large female cones

  9. triticale wheat rye B. Species concept Biological species Reproductive isolation Clusia gaudichadii Morphological species Spurge hybrid Genetic species Problem with plants • promiscuous • plastic Cactus

  10. Questions Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of plants that creates problems for species definitions? a. many plants are promiscuous b. plants are plastic c. plants hybridize readily d. species can be distinguished by their genetics • Which of the following is the correct spelling for the Douglas fir species? • Pseudosugameniizes • Pseudotsuga menzzies • Pseudogusameniezes • Pseudotsuga menziesii

  11. C. Domains of life Prokaryotes 1. Archaea(-um) 2. Bacteria(-um) Extremophiles ubiquitous Inside bacteria cells loopy (Cell membrane)

  12. N N Examples of bacteria Rhizobium Roles of bacteria • fix nitrogen • photosynthesis N2 • disease • decomposers nitrogenase legumes The holy grail!! Autotroph/ heterotroph Cyanobacteria Light energy PS: CO2 + H2O Carbohydrates + O2

  13. D. Kingdoms of Eukarya: protista Multiple kingdoms Phytoplankton Light energy PS: CO2 + H2O Carbohydrates + O2

  14. Protista example Decomposers Slimemolds Roles of protista Autotroph/ heterotroph

  15. Questions Which of the following can Rhizobium do? a. photosynthesize b. break the triple bond of atmospheric nitrogen c. decompose organic matter d. make plants sick Which of the following organisms produces 50% of the oxygen we breathe? a. cyanobacteria b. slime molds c. phytoplankton d. rhizobium

  16. D. Kingdoms of Eukarya: fungi Filamentous growth Extracellular digestion Hypha(e)

  17. D. Kingdoms of Eukarya: fungi All of these fungi are mycorrhizal Chanterelles (not quite a mushroom) Mushrooms Amanita family Boletes

  18. D. Kingdoms of Eukarya: fungi Truffles mycorrhizal Morels: not mushrooms! Fungi are #1 decomposers

  19. D. Kingdoms of Eukarya: fungi Armillaria root rot Rot Mildew Fungi are #1 Plant pathogens Dutch elm disease Wheat Rust

  20. D. Kingdoms of Eukarya: fungi Lichens: a parasitic relationship • crustose • foliose • fruticose • Roles of fungi • Heterotrophs

  21. Questions Which of the following is a characteristic of fungi? a. they have filamentous growth b. they are the number one pathogen of plants c. some form mycorrhiza d. they digest their food outside of their bodies e. all of these are characteristics of fungi • Truffles are • Mycorrhizal • Plant pathogens • Decomposers • Really good chocolates that grow underground

  22. D. Kingdoms of Eukarya: animals No cell walls! Roles of animals Pollinators Heterotrophs Herbivores Decomposers Seed dispersers

  23. Questions Which of the following is NOT a role of animals? a. pollination b. herbivory c. seed dispersal d. decomposition e. photosynthesis • The lichen relationship is • Mycorrhizal • Mutualistic • Parasitic • Pathogenic

  24. Roles of plants D. Kingdoms of Eukarya: plants Plant characteristics: • Chlorophyll a and b/ carotene • Cellulose cell walls • Starch storage • Autotrophs Light energy • PS: CO2 + H2O Carbohydrates + O2

  25. Questions Which of the following are outputs of photosynthesis? a. carbohydrates and water b. carbohydrates and oxygen c. carbon dioxide and water d. carbon dioxide and oxygen e. carbon dioxide and carbohydrates • Which of the following is the leastdefining characteristic of plants? • Cellulose cell walls • Presence of chlorophyll a and b • Storage of carbohydrates as starch • Autotrophic

  26. E. Viruses Tobacco mosaic HIV Flu

  27. E. Viruses: infection protein coat viral DNA or RNA Infect more cells Living or non-living?

  28. Questions Why are viruses considered to be non-living? a. they don’t evolve b. they don’t have a nucleus c. they don’t have DNA d. they don’t metabolize True or false? You can treat a viral infection with antibiotics. a. True b. False • Why will we likely never be rid of viruses? • They are not alive, so we can’t kill them • They don’t have DNA • They are constantly evolving into new forms • They don’t respond to antibiotics

  29. III. Major plant groups Vascular versus non-vascular Tracheids are a type of xylem cell found mainly in conifers

  30. III. Major plant groups A. Non- vascular plants: spore producers Green algae Mosses Liverworts

  31. B. Vascular plants: spore producers Seed versus spore Psilotum Horsetail

  32. B. Vascular plants: spore producers Ferns Sori Fronds Ferns

  33. B. Vascular plants: seed producers Gymnosperms Cycad Ginkgo biloba living fossil: back in fossil record 270 mya Ephedra

  34. Gymnosperms: Conifers Western white pine Noble fir Conifers Conifers are the dominant plants in Pacific Northwest forests Monkey puzzle Western redcedar

  35. Conifers Record holders Redwood Bristlecone pine Sequoia

  36. B. Vascular plants: angiosperms Monocots

  37. B. Vascular plants: angiosperms Dicots Pacific Rhododendron

  38. B. Vascular plants:angiosperms

  39. Questions Which of the following is NOT correct? a. spores are much smaller than seeds b. spores contain embryos c. seeds have a protective resistant coat d. spores are produced in large amounts • A fern is • a. a vascular plant • b. a spore producer • c. an autotroph • d. all of the above except c • e. all of the above except d

  40. Myths of evolution IV. Plant Evolution Evolution: the Organizing Principle of Biology Evolution explains why organisms are similar (common ancestry) and why they are different (adaptation). Natural selection- the main theory of evolution Theory- a well documented, explanatory principle

  41. IV. Plant evolution Green algae/ land plant connection Land plants and all green algae have: • Cellulose, chlorophyll a and b, carotene, starch Land plants and some green algae have: • Same type of cell division • Internal reproduction

  42. Mycorrhiza Waxy cuticle Stomata IV. Plant evolution Four major events • Invasion of land and air (450 mya) • Evolution of vascular tissue (400 mya) • Evolution of seeds (350 mya) • Evolution of flowering plants (150 mya) • Wind versus animal pollination xylem

  43. Questions What major advantage do angiosperms have over all other plants? a. xylem and phloem b. mycorrhiza c. animal pollination d. waxy cuticle • Which is the correct sequence of events in plant evolution? • Evolution of vascular tissue • Evolution of flowering plants • Invasion of land and air • Evolution of seeds • a. 1-2-4-3 • b. 3-1-2-4 • c. 3-2-1-4 • d. 3-1-4-2

  44. Cooksonia Ordovician beginnings (450 mya)

  45. Carboniferous forest (350 mya) Lycopodium tree Devonian forest (400 mya) Lycopodium Ancient forests

  46. Permian 250 mya Permian extinction Conifers became dominant plants in Permian and remained so until Cretaceous

  47. Jurassic 200 mya

  48. Cretaceous 150 mya to present Angiosperms first appear in fossil record 150 mya and became the dominant plants by mid-Cretaceous. A major radiation occurred 80 mya with evolution of bees.

  49. The end