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  1. por Tether A. Campbell

  2. LATIN AMERICAN DANCES: These are essentially divided into two categories: The authentic, traditional dances that fall lately into the domain of the folkloric, many of these dances vary from region-to-region, and generally involve a rhythmic character as opposed to a set of choreographic distinctions. The standardized expression of popular Latin dances embraced by cultures other than Hispanic, such as the Cha Cha, Samba, Rumba, Bolero, Mambo and Paso Doble. These dances are danced both on a social and competitive level. The choreography of Latin America dances varies greatly according to region and time. However, it is possible to indicate the principal types of choreographic figures described in such terms as amorous dances, in which the partners hold each other closely, handkerchief dances, in which the partners dancing apart from each other wave handkerchiefs, and so on.

  3. Ten principal may thus be established: 1. Amorous dances such as Rumba, Merengue, Tango, and Milonga. 2. Handkerchief dances, such as Bailecito, Marinera, Sanjuanito and Zamacueca. 3. Finger snapping dances: Gato, Chacarera, Jarana. 4. Street dances: Choros, Guajira, Guaracha. 5. Pursuit dances: Fimeza, Escondido, Bambuco, Jarabe. 6. Square dances: Perican, Punto, Mejorana. 7. Rustic dances: Ranchera, Pasillo, Joropo. 8. Ritual dances: Jongo, Macumba. 9. Carnival dances: Samba, Conga. 10. Topical ballads: Corrido, Zandunga, Calypso.

  4. ALEGRIAS: The Alegrias is one of the oldest of Spanish Gypsy dances and is often called the "Queen" of Flamenco dances. It is the purest and more refined of the repertoire. It suggests the movements of the bullfight and is usually danced by a woman alone. 6166076944127&op_shop=show&id_prod=1627&id_cat=96 ARGENTINIAN TANGO: Originated in the West Indies where it was danced only by the lowest classes. The name is from the African Tanganya. The dance found its way into Argentina and then to France and finally into the United States in a modified form about 1914. BAION: A type of slow Samba rhythm from Brazil that became popular in North America during the 50's. BAMBA: An old Mexican air from the province of Vera Cruz, Mexico, to which a charming folk dance depicts two lovers who throwing a narrow sash on the floor manage to tie in into a knot with their dancing feet.

  5. Flamenco

  6. BAMBUCA: The national dance of Colombia, South America. It is characterized by cross accents in the music. It was formerly danced only by the Natives but became a ballroom dance to be added to the gentle Pasillo, a favorite with Colombian society. BEGUINE: A type of Rumba in which the accent is on the second eighth note of the first beat. Origins spring from Martinique and Cuba. BOLERO: Originally a Spanish dance, the pace was changed in Cuba initially and later again. It is now present as a very slow type of Rumba rhythm. The music is frequently arranged with Spanish vocals and a subtle percussion effect, usually implemented with Conga or Bongos. BOLERO SON: Just what the name implies. It starts as a Bolero and finished as a Son. The Son is faster, with sharper percussion and is less subtle than the Bolero. BOTECITA: The "Little Boat." It is Cuban dancing with a very exaggerated swaying of the shoulders. BULERIAS: A Spanish Gypsy dance. Livelier and more spirited than most of the repertoire. It's usually danced by a whole group and could be called a Flamenco jam-session.

  7. CARIOCA: A native of Rio de Janeiro. Also the abbreviation of the Brazilian dance, the Samba Carioca. At the Carioca Carnival, from the moment the music starts until it dies off, people get together in cordoes (chains or cues). Holding hands in this fashion they sing and sway their bodies to the Samba-Carioca and the Marchas. CHA CHA: From the less inhibited night clubs and dance halls the Mambo underwent subtle changes. It was triple mambo, and then peculiar scraping and shuffling sounds during the "tripling" produced the imitative sound of Cha Cha Cha. This then became a dance in itself. Mambo or triple Mambo or Cha Cha as it is now called, is but an advanced stage in interpretive social dancing born of the fusion of progressive American and Latin music. CHAPANECAS: A Mexican Folk dance from the province of Chiapas. Its popularity is due to the charming air plus the audience participation during the time the dancers request the audience to clap hands with them. It is based on Spanish patterns. COMPARSA: Afro-Cuban dance play. CONGA: An African-Cuban dance characterized by the extreme violence of accents on the strong beats. The Conga beat thus used has a rhythmic anticipation of the second beat in every other measure. The Conga was very popular in the late thirties. It was performed in a formation known as the Conga chain. The steps are simple, one, two, three, kick at which time the partners move away from each other.

  8. CORRIDOS: The musical ballads called the Corridos play a very important part in Latin American musical life. The words are often topical and relate to political events. It has been suggested that the word Corrido is derived from the word correr, to run, because the singer has to run for his life when caught in the process of reciting a subversive ditty. Corridos are particularly popular in Mexico. CUMBIA: slave dance, lively, origin black dance music from coast of Colombia, now mestizo (blood mixture), irresistible, compulsive backbeat. In this, Cumbia resembles rocksteady forms from Jamaica much more strongly than it does the fluid subtleties of salsa and Afro-Cuban music. As a dance the cumbia is characterized by the dancers' feet remaining directly one in front of the other practically all the time. But mostly in clubs nowadays (as opposed to "folkloric" settings) people perform salsa dance steps to the music. DANZON: A Cuban dance which starts slowly and gradually accelerates at certain melodic intervals between chorus and verse: the dancers stop to talk but remain on the floor until a certain beat tells them to resume their dances. This dance, which might be called a Rumba variation faster. Its stately music is popular in the tropics because it is not strenuous. It is know as the aristocrat of all Cuban Dancing because of its dignified and stately appearance. (A variation of the Spanish Danza which is a much slower ballroom dance.)

  9. Cumbia

  10. DOMINICAN MERENGUE: The dance of the Dominican Republic is interpreted by the dancers as a slight limp. It became popular in 1957. It was popular throughout the Caribbean and South America in the 1940s and 1950s. Also known in Haiti, Puerto Rico, Colombia and Venezuela. It has its origins in Afro-Cuban rhythms and dances. There is a belief that the tumbao, two steps of the merengue was caused by trying to dance like the man who lost his leg in a battle and danced with a stick leg. ESCONDIDO: An Argentine dance called Escondido (literally hidden for in it the female partner hides from the male) belongs to the Gato type rhythmically and choreographically. FADO: Originally a Portuguese song and dance absorbed by Latin America and especially by Brazil as a pattern for the Samba. The steps of the Fado are based on a hop, a skip and a kick. It makes a charming exhibition folk dance. FANDANGO: Most important of the modern Spanish dances, for couples. The dance begins slowly and tenderly, the rhythm marked by the clack of castanets, snapping of fingers, and stomping of feet. The speed gradually increases to a whirl of exhilaration. There is a sudden pause in the music toward the end of each figure when the dancers stand rigid in the attitude caught by the music. They move again only when the music is resumed. This is also characteristic of Seguidillas, similar to Jota. FARUCA: The dance of Spain most suited to a man. It is a pure Gypsy dance consisting of heel work, fast double turns and falls. It is considered one of the most exciting of all the same Flamenco dances.

  11. GATO: Argentine dance performed by two couples. In rhythm it resembles a very fast Waltz in steady quarter notes. A very popular form is the Gato con Pelaciones - that is Gato with stories. The stories are the diversified content; amorous, philosophical or political. GUAJIRA: This dance was originally a Andalusian dance derived from Sevillanos. This dance which was played fast was a Cuban Country dance as well, performed in Conga rhythm to the music marked Son Guajira. In ballroom terminology a Rumba is slow to medium tempo, or danced as a very slow Cha Cha, with subtle body movements. GUARACHA: This lively Cuban song and dance of Spanish origin is performed and danced by the more expert and agile dancers only, as its speed is rather imposing. a) An old Spanish dance in two sections. One is lively triple and the other in double. b) A modern Rumba usually played very fast. HAITIAN MERENGUE: Haitian music stems directly from African rhythms. Divested of mysticisms, its traditions and beliefs from the folkloric basis from which the Haitian Merengue derived. It is simple and smooth in its slow version and can be colorful and exciting in its faster forms.

  12. Merengue

  13. HAUPANGO: The Mexican Haupango is ultimately traced to the Spanish Son, but its rhythm is definitely of the New World. The Haupango creates cross rhythms of great complexity. It makes a most interestinglively dance. IBO: The Ibo rhythm belongs to the faster Haitian Merengue group of dancers. It is colorful, native in style and can be classified as "Caribbean dancing." A pronounced movement of hips and turning of the head is typical. JARABE: The Jarabes are typical Mexican Folk dances. Usually done by a couple, it depicts a flirtation and conquest. It is well known in America by its other name, "The Mexican Hat Dance." The Mexican Jarabe is a descendant of the Spanish Zapateado, and its rhythm resembles that of a Mazurka. JARANA: Folk dance of Yucatan, Mexico. It is possibly closer to the melo-rhythmic foundation of the ancient Mexican songs than any other native air. The verses of the Jarana are often in the Mayan language. The word Jarana means merry chatter. As an exhibition ballroom dance it can be placed alongside La Raspa and La Bamba, its cousins.

  14. Jarabe Mexican Hat Dance Song

  15. JOTA: Native folk dance Aragon, Spain. Performed usually by one or more couples and consisting of hoppy steps. KANKUKUS: Afro-Brazilian dances of the Mestiso Indians. LA CUECA: La Cueca is a Chilian dance. Originally it was danced with handkerchiefs only, but during recent year sit has enjoyed popularity on the ballroom floor. LA RASPA: A Mexican dance from Vera Cruz, which reminds us of our own square dancing except that it has a peculiar hopping step of its own. It has enjoyed a well merited popularity for a number of years as a fun dance. LAMBADA: This latest dance crazy has its roots from the Northeast Coast of Brazil. The exciting look of this dance on European television took the Continent by storm in the late 80's. Introduced to the U.S. by Arthur Murray personnel, its lighthearted Brazilian/Caribbean beat combines the flavor of the Samba with the sultry passion of the Rumba. MACUMBO: An African Brazilian ritual and like dances belonging to it.

  16. MAMBO: The fusion of Swing and Cuban music produced this fascinating rhythm and in turn created a new sensational dance. The Mambo could not have been conceived earlier since up until that time Cuba and the American Jazz were still not wedded. The Victor records of Anselmo Sacaras entitled "Mambo" in 1944 were probably the beginning and since then other Latin American bandleaders such as Tito Rodriguez, Pupi Campo, Tito Puente, Perez Prado, Machito and Xavier Cugat have achieved styling of their own and furthered the Mambo craze. The Mambo was originally played as any Rumba with a riff ending. It may be described as a riff or a Rumba . MAXIXE: A Brazilian dance first introduced in Paris in 1912. In this dance strict attention must be paid to the carriage of the head and the posturing of the arms. MILONGA: The Milonga is a Spanish dance first originated in Andalusia. As the fascinating music traveled the world it assumed various aspects. In Buenos Aires the Gauchos danced it in what is called a closed position, in the lower class cafes. Here their interpretation of it emerged into what today is our Tango. The Milonga enjoyed a popular resurgence some years ago through the Juan Carlos Copes group who performed it the world over.

  17. Mambo

  18. MODINHA: Among the Brazilian dances there is the Modinha which is the diminutive of Moda (Mode or Style) and is directly derived from the Portuguese songs and dances of that name. The early Modinhas were greatly influenced by Italian music. The present day Modinhas are sentimental in mood and similar to the Cuban Boleros. PACHANGA: In 1955 Eduardo Davidson, a Cuban Colombian introduced the Marencumbae, a Colombian dance in Cuba. The Original music was called La Pachanga with Marencumbae underneath it. He made up patterns for this dance by watching musicians keeping time on the band stand. It was then introduced into the United States to play for the Cuban Embassy's annual affair at the Waldorf. He was simultaneously booked at the Palladium. He had with him two terrific boy dancers. These boys came out as part of the show and did Cha Cha's with swiveling and trucking movements. People had never seen this type of Cha Cha before and asked what it was. Since Fajardo had a Charanga band and spoke no English, his reply was Charanga. After a big conference of dancers in 1956 the Pachanga was introduced, but they found out that the Charanga and the Pachanga were interchangeable. So instead of some calling it Charanga and others Pachanga, they decided that the music would be called Charanga and the dance Pachanga. A Charanga band is the typical Spanish Danzon type band that only played in salons, and the others that played far out and wild were called "orchestra typical."

  19. PASILLO COLOMBIANO: A Colombian dance very similar to the Cuban Bolero. PASO DOBLE: The Spanish March or One Step. It makes an especially good exhibition routine when the man styles his body movements to look like a bullfighter's and leads his partner in and out of the patterns as if she were a cape. PASO DOBLE FLAMENCO: The same as the Paso Doble but it is not the ballroom version. It is purely exhibition dancing and sometimes castanets are used or flamenco arm movements. PLENA: Several distinctive airs have originated in Puerto Rico. Among them the Plena, which is a topical ballad similar to the Mexican Corrido. When danced it resembles a Bolero. PORRO: A Colombian dance. It is similar to the Cuban Rumbas in that it Expresses various activities or tells stories.

  20. RUMBA: The Rumba was originally a marriage dance. Many of its movements and actions which seem to have an erotic meaning are merely depictions of simple farm tasks The shoeing of the mare, the climbing of a rope, the courtship of the rooster and the hen, etc. It was done for amusement on the farms by the black population of Cuba. However, it became a popular ballroom dance and was introduced in the United States about 1933. It was the Americanized version for the Cuban Son and Danzon. The characteristic feature is to take each step without initially placing the weight on that step. Steps are made with a slightly bent knee which, when straightened, causes the hips to sway from side to side in what has come to be known as "Cuban Motion." SALSA: This is a favored name for a type of Latin music which, for the most part, has its roots in Cuban culture and is enhanced by jazz textures. The word, Salsa, means sauce denoting a "hot" flavor and is best distinguished from other Latin music styles by defining it as the New York sound developed by Puerto Rican musicians in New York. The dance structure is largely associated with mambo type patterns and has a particular feeling that is associated mainly with the Clave and the Montuno.

  21. Salsa Rumba Salsa clip

  22. SAMBA: This Brazilian dance was first introduced in 1917 but was finally adopted by Brazilian society in 1930 as a ballroom dance. It is sometimes referred to as a Samba, Carioca, a Baion or a Batucado. The difference is mostly in the tempo played since the steps in all three dance are very similar. The style is to bounce steadily and smoothly. They say that the Samba was introduced in the United States in 1939 by the late Carmen Miranda. SEVILLANAS: A Spanish folk dance consisting of seven "Coplas." Each Copla is a little dance in itself divided into three parts. Each part begins with an "Entrada" and ends with a "Pasada". It is performed by couples and furnished an excellent foundation for all forms of Spanish dance. SPANISH WALTZ: A smoothly danced waltz in open position using the arm movements of the classic Spanish dance.

  23. TANGO:Continental/English - See INTERNATIONAL TANGO There are essentially three types of Tango - Argentine, American and International Style. Argentine Tango: (arrabalero) A dance created by the Gauchos in Buenos Aires. It was actually an attempt on their part to imitate the Spanish dance except that they danced it in a closed ballroom position. The Tango caused a sensation and was soon to be seen the world over in a more subdued version. American Tango: Unlike the Argentine Tango, in which the dancer interprets the music spontaneously without any predetermined slows or quicks, the American Tango features a structure which is correlated to the musical phrasing. The dance is executed both in closed position and in various types of extravagant dance relationships which incorporate a particular freedom of expression that is not present in the International style. International Tango: This is a highly disciplined and distinctively structured form of the Tango which is accepted worldwide as the format for dancesport events. The dancers remain in traditional closed position throughout and expresses both legato and staccato aspects of the type of music appropriate to this style.

  24. EVOLUTION OF THE TANGO: The history of the Tango can be traced surprisingly enough to a country dance of 17th Century England. The English country dance became the CONTREDANSE in France, and this in turn was called the CONTRADANZA in Spain or later simply DANZA. When imported by the Spaniards into Cuba, it became the DANZAHABANERA. During the Spanish American War, a popular dance called the Habanera del Cafe appeared which was the prototype of the Tango. The whole genealogy is presented in the following chronological table: Country Dance : England 1650 Contredanse : France 1700 Contradanza : Spain 1750 Danza : Spain 1800 Danza Habanera : Cuba 1825 Habanero : 1850 Habanera del Cafe : 1900 Tango : 1910

  25. Tango Tango Dance File

  26. XONGO: (CHAN GO) A dance of the Macumba ritual in Brazil. It is in honor of the jungle god Xango. XTOLES: (CHI TOL LES) The Mayan Warriors dance of Mexico. YAQUI INDIAN DANCES: Dances of the Indians of Sonora, Mexico, among which El Venado is the most popular. It depicts the fascination of a young deer for a campfire. He finally loses his life by jumping into it. YURUPARI: Ritual dance of the Indians of the Amazon basin said to protect the young male dancers against feminine seduction. The rites of Yurupari are held by the Indians in the jungles of Brazil. The African Brazilians practice their fetishistic ritual of the macumba from which stem many Brazilian dance patterns. The Spanish and Portuguese contribute the rituals of their Christian religion and all three now have enriched the dances we learn and enjoy in the ballroom. ZAMBRA: The Zambra has a definitely Moorish origin. Prizes were given to the youth who could dance the Best Zambra with his Moorish maiden during the Caliphate of Cordoba. Today it is the dance of the Gitano women of Spain.

  27. ZANDUNGA: The songs and dances in Waltz time of Southern Mexico. The lyrics tell a story and more often funny situations between persons are rhymed and danced. ZAPATEADO: The Spanish and Flamenco dances of Spain in which rhythmic patterns are made with the heel and ball of Filigrano. Also a man's dance which consists purely of intricate stomping. (See photo) A distinctive type of footwork that originated in Spain. When dancing the zapateado the performers skillfully drive the heels of their shoes or boots into the dance floor, pounding out swift, often syncopated rhythms which complement the different sounds of the musical instruments. The zapateado can reduce even the most sturdy dance floor to splinters because of the vigor with which it is danced.

  28. Photos from Yahoo Images Most of the information on the dances from:

  29. El Fin