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Discovery and Library Management Systems

Discovery and Library Management Systems

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Discovery and Library Management Systems

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  1. Marshall Breeding Independent Consult, Author, Founder and Publisher, Library Technology Guides http://www.librarytechnology.org/ http://twitter.com/mbreeding Discovery and Library Management Systems 19 June 2013 HKU Library Leadership Institute

  2. Challenge: More integrated approach to information and service delivery • Library Web sites offer a menu of unconnected silos: • Books: Library OPAC (ILS online catalog module) • Search the Web site • Articles: Aggregated content products, e-journal collections • OpenURL linking services • E-journal finding aids (Often managed by link resolver) • Subject guides (e.g. SpringshareLibGuides) • Local digital collections • ETDs, photos, rich media collections • Metasearch engines • Discovery Services – often just another choice among many • All searched separately

  3. ILS Data Online Catalog Search: Scope of Search • Books, Journals, and Media at the Title Level • Not in scope: • Articles • Book Chapters • Digital objects • Web site content • Etc. Search Results

  4. Next-gen Catalogs or Discovery Interface (2002-2009) • Single search box • Query tools • Did you mean • Type-ahead • Relevance ranked results (for some content sources) • Faceted navigation • Enhanced visual displays • Cover art • Summaries, reviews, • Recommendation services

  5. Discovery Interface search model ILS Data Digital Collections Search: Local Index ProQuest Search Results EBSCOhost Metasearch Engine … MLA Bibliography ABC-CLIO Real-time query and responses

  6. Discovery Products http://www.librarytechnology.org/discovery.pl

  7. Differentiation in Discovery • Products increasingly specialized between public and academic libraries • Public libraries: emphasis on engagement with physical collection + e-books • Academic libraries: concern for discovery of heterogeneous material types, especially books + articles + digital objects

  8. Discovery from Local to Web-scale • Initial products focused on technology • AquaBrowser, Endeca,Primo, Encore, VuFind, • LIBERO Uno, Civica Sorcer, Axiell Arena • Mostly locally-installed software • Current phase is focused on pre-populated indexes that aim to deliver Web-scale discovery • Primo Central (Ex Libris) • Summon (Serials Solutions) • WorldCat Local (OCLC) • EBSCO Discovery Service (EBSCO) • Encore Synergy (no index, though)

  9. Public Library Information Portal ILS Data Digital Collections Search: Web Site Content CommunityInformation Aggregated Content packages Search Results Consolidated Index … Customer-providedcontent Reference Sources CustomerProfile Usage-generatedData Archives Pre-built harvesting and indexing

  10. Web-scale Index-based Discovery ILS Data (2009- present) Digital Collections Search: Web Site Content Institutional Repositories Aggregated Content packages Search Results Consolidated Index Open Access … E-Journals CustomerProfile Usage-generatedData Reference Sources Pre-built harvesting and indexing

  11. Web-scale Search Problem ILS Data Digital Collections Search: Web Site Content Institutional Repositories Consolidated Index Aggregated Content packages Search Results … E-Journals Pre-built harvesting and indexing ??? Non Participating Content Sources Problem in how to deal with resources not provided to ingest into consolidated index

  12. Discovery Service Installations

  13. Web-scale Search Problem ILS Data Digital Collections Search: Web Site Content Institutional Repositories Consolidated Index Aggregated Content packages Search Results … E-Journals Pre-built harvesting and indexing ??? Non Participating Content Sources Problem in how to deal with resources not provided to ingest into consolidated index

  14. Challenge for Relevancy • Technically feasible to index hundreds of millions or billions of records through Lucene or SOLR • Difficult to order records in ways that make sense • Many fairly equivalent candidates returned for any given query • Must rely on use-based and social factors to improve relevancy rankings

  15. Evaluating Index-based Discovery Services • Intense competition: how well the index covers the body of scholarly content stands as a key differentiator • Difficult to evaluate based on numbers of items indexed alone. • Important to ascertain now your library’s content packages are represented by the discovery service. • Important to know what items are indexed by citation and which are full text • Important to know whether the discovery service favors the content of any given publisher

  16. Open Discovery Initiative • NISO Work Group to Develop Standards and Recommended Practices for Library Discovery Services Based on Indexed Search • Informal meeting called at ALA Annual 2011 • Co-Chaired by Marshall Breeding and Jenny Walker • Term: Dec 2011 – May 2013

  17. Balance of Constituents Marshall Breeding, Vanderbilt UniversityJamene Brooks-Kieffer, Kansas State University Laura Morse, Harvard University Ken Varnum, University of Michigan Sara Brownmiller, University of Oregon Lucy Harrison, College Center for Library Automation (D2D liaison/observer) Michele Newberry Lettie Conrad, SAGE PublicationsBeth LaPensee, ITHAKA/JSTOR/PorticoJeff Lang, Thomson Reuters Linda Beebe, American Psychological AssocAaron Wood, Alexander Street Press Jenny Walker, Ex Libris GroupJohn Law, Serials SolutionsMichael Gorrell, EBSCO Information Services David Lindahl, University of Rochester (XC) Jeff Penka, OCLC (D2D liaison/observer)

  18. Integrating e-Books into Library Automation Infrastructure • Current approach involves mostly outsourced arrangements • Collections licensed wholesale from single provider • Hand-off to DRM and delivery systems of providers • Loading of MARC records into local catalog with linking mechanisms • No ability to see availability status of e-books from the library’s online catalog or discovery interface

  19. 2013: The current state of discovery • Online Catalogs of ILS modules in decline • Increasing numbers of academic libraries offer discovery services • Index-based search emerges • Summon, Primo/Primo Central, EBSCO Discovery Service, WorldCat Local • Indexes growing in comprehensiveness and depth. • Relevancy algorithms gaining sophistication • Increasing numbers of publishers and providers cooperate with library discovery services • Open Discovery Initiative launched October 2011

  20. New-generation Library Management

  21. Fragmented Library Management • LMS for management of (mostly) print • Duplicative financial systems between library and local government or other parent organization • E-book lending platform (multiple?) • Interlibrary loan (borrowing and lending) • Self-service and AMH infrastructure • Electronic Resource Management • PC Scheduling and print management • Event scheduling • Digital Collections Management platforms (CONTENTdm, DigiTool, etc.) • Discovery-layer services for broader access to library collections • No effective integration services / interoperability among disconnected systems, non-aligned metadata schemes

  22. Is the status quo sustainable? • ILS for management of (mostly) print • Duplicative financial systems between library and campus • Electronic Resource Management (non-integrated with ILS) • OpenURL Link Resolver w/ knowledge base for access to full-text electronic articles • Digital Collections Management platforms (CONTENTdm, DigiTool, etc.) • Institutional Repositories (DSpace, Fedora, etc.) • Discovery-layer services for broader access to library collections • No effective integration services / interoperability among disconnected systems, non-aligned metadata schemes

  23. Policies $$$ Funds BIB Vendor Holding / Items CircTransact User Integrated (for print) Library System Public Interfaces: Staff Interfaces: Interfaces Circulation Cataloging Acquisitions Serials OnlineCatalog BusinessLogic DataStores

  24. Policies LicenseTerms BIB Vendors Holding / Items CircTransact User Vendor E-JournalTitles $$$ Funds LMS / ERM: Fragmented Model Public Interfaces: Staff Interfaces: ` Application Programming Interfaces Circulation Cataloging Acquisitions Serials OnlineCatalog E-resourceProcurement LicenseManagement Protocols: CORE

  25. BIB Holding / Items CircTransact User Vendor Policies $$$ Funds Common approach for ERM Public Interfaces: Staff Interfaces: Budget License Terms Application Programming Interfaces Circulation Cataloging Acquisitions Serials OnlineCatalog Titles / Holdings Vendors Access Details

  26. Almost no systematic automation support for references and research services Customer Relationship Management? Resource sharing / Interlibrary loan management Collection development support Gaps in Automation

  27. Comprehensive Resource Management • No longer sensible to use different software platforms for managing different types of library materials • ILS + ERM + OpenURL Resolver + Digital Asset management, etc. very inefficient model • Flexible platform capable of managing multiple type of library materials, multiple metadata formats, with appropriate workflows • Support for management of metadata in bulk • Continuous lifecycle chain initiated before publication

  28. Academic Libraries need a new model of library management • Not an Integrated Library System or Library Management System • The ILS/LMSwas designed to help libraries manage print collections • Generally did not evolve to manage electronic collections • Other library automation products evolved: • Electronic Resource Management Systems – OpenURL Link Resolvers – Digital Library Management Systems -- Institutional Repositories

  29. Library Services Platform • Library-specific software. Designed to help libraries automate their internal operations, manage collections, fulfillment requests, and deliver services • Services • Service oriented architecture • Exposes Web services and other API’s • Facilitates the services libraries offer to their users • Platform • General infrastructure for library automation • Consistent with the concept of Platform as a Service • Library programmers address the APIs of the platform to extend functionality, create connections with other systems, dynamically interact with data

  30. Library Services Platform Characteristics • Highly Shared data models • Knowledgebase architecture • Some may take hybrid approach to accommodate local data stores • Delivered through software as a service • Multi-tenant • Unified workflows across formats and media • Flexible metadata management • MARC – Dublin Core – VRA – MODS – ONIX • Bibframe • New structures not yet invented • Open APIs for extensibility and interoperability

  31. Library Services Platforms

  32. Library Services Platforms

  33. Development Resources (2011)

  34. Open Systems • Achieving openness has risen as the key driver behind library technology strategies • Libraries need to do more with their data • Ability to improve customer experience and operational efficiencies • Demand for Interoperability • Open source – full access to internal program of the application • Open API’s – expose programmatic interfaces to data and functionality

  35. Major thread in library systems development Koha Evergreen Kuali OLE Open Source Integrated Library Systems

  36. New Library Management Model Unified Presentation Layer Search: Self-Check /Automated Return Library Services Platform ` Digital Coll Consolidated index Discovery Service ProQuest API Layer StockManagement EBSCO … Enterprise ResourcePlanning Smart Cad / Payment systems JSTOR LearningManagement AuthenticationService Other Resources

  37. Beginning of a new cycle of transition Over the course of the next decade, academic libraries will replace their current legacy products with new platforms Not just a change of technology but a substantial change in the ways that libraries manage their resources and deliver their services Development / Deployment perspective

  38. Eventual product consolidation • Alma for resource management • Eventual transition of Voyager and Aleph • Immediate transition of Verde • SFX • DigiTool for digital collections • Primo / Primo Central for Discovery • Rosetta for Preservation • Possible integration into Alma?

  39. Progressive consolidation of library services • Centralization of technical infrastructure of multiple libraries within a campus • Resource sharing support • Direct borrowing among partner institutions • Shared infrastructure between institutions • Examples: 2CUL (Columbia University / Cornell University) • Orbis Cascade Alliance (37 independent colleges and universities to merge into shared LSP)

  40. Competing Models of Library Automation • Traditional Proprietary Commercial ILS • Aleph, Voyager, Millennium, Symphony, Polaris, • BOOK-IT, DDELibra, Libra.se • LIBERO, Amlib, Spydus, TOTALS II, Talis Alto, OpenGalaxy • Traditional Open Source ILS • Evergreen, Koha • New generation Library Services Platforms • Ex Libris Alma • Kuali OLE (Enterprise, not cloud) • OCLC WorldShare Management Services, • Serials Solutions Intota • Innovative Interfaces Sierra (evolving)

  41. Convergence • Discovery and Management solutions will increasingly be implemented as matched sets • Ex Libris: Primo / Alma • Serials Solutions: Summon / Intota • OCLC: WorldCat Local / WorldShare Platform • Except: Kuali OLE, EBSCO Discovery Service • Both depend on an ecosystem of interrelated knowledge bases • API’s exposed to mix and match, but efficiencies and synergies are lost

  42. Moving legacy systems to hosted services provides some savings to individual institutions but does not result in dramatic transformation Globally shared data and metadata models have the potential to achieve new levels of operational efficiencies and more powerful discovery and automation scenarios that improve the position of libraries overall. Leveraging the Cloud