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HybridICE Freeze Crystallization

HybridICE Freeze Crystallization

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HybridICE Freeze Crystallization

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  1. HybridICE Freeze Crystallization

  2. Cost of desalination technologies

  3. Gypsum from fertilizer industry

  4. SulphurRecovery flow diagram CaSO4/Mg(OH)2/Coal D Sulphur Pipco 1100 deg C H2O H2S CaS(s) A C MgO(s) Mg(HCO3)2 H2O B CaCO3/Ash MgCO3 CO2 from kiln

  5. Pumping or not

  6. Pumping cost Ph = q ρ g h / (3.6 x 106) where Ph = power (kW); q = flow capacity (m3/h); ρ = density of fluid (kg/m3); g = gravity (9.81 m/s2); h = differential head (m) Recommendation: Determine whether ECL levels can be moved to higher levels

  7. When to pump Allow future mining and the protection of tourist sites. Protect ground water to be contaminated with mine water. Provide flow-equalization storage areas in sub-surface voids. (Alternatively, such storage facilities (e.g. ponds) need to be constructed on surface.)

  8. Benefits associated when water is allowed to decant Less pyrites oxidation as a result of ingress water running through broken rock; and Less pyrites oxidation due to no reciprocating contact of pyrites-rich ore with water and oxygen as the water level fluctuates from water being pumped out at a constant rate while the incoming water flow-rate fluctuates with seasonal rainfall, Limited dissolution of limestone/dolomite due to ingress of rain water

  9. Problems/Solutions to rising levels of acid mine water

  10. Acknowledgements TUT Rand Water THRIP Industrial partners (KSH, Marlow Aquatec)