RECIDIVISM STUDY PROPOSAL MONTGOMERY COUNTY DEPARTMENT OF CORRECTION AND REHABILITATION DETENTION SERVICES PRE-RELEASE AND REENTRY SERVICES
COUNTY COUNCIL REQUEST Ongoing reports from the Department of Correction and Rehabilitation (DOCR) indicating: • Baseline recidivism rates • Changes in recidivism rates • Trends in offender population • Program affects on recidivism • Programs making the biggest difference in offender outcome
LITERATURE REVIEW • Two major recidivism studies provided answers to questions similar to those asked by the County Council. • The methodology used in both studies is possible to replicate in Montgomery County DOCR.
HAMPDEN COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS • Hampden County Sheriff's Department administers the Hampden County Correctional Center supervising approximately 1800 offenders in various levels of security. • They have been conducting an ongoing recidivism study since 1998. • Staff regularly present timely reports on current data and make comparisons with previous data.
HAMPDEN STUDY (continued) • Population studied: all sentenced offenders released time served or paroled from correctional facilities in Hampden County. • Data collected: • Offender demographics • Offense information • Classification • Criminogenic risk factors • Institutional behavior and program participation • Criminal history • Supervision upon release
HAMPDEN STUDY (continued) Recidivism defined as: • Re-arraignment – any court appearances post-release • Re-conviction – any guilty finding in a case in a Massachusetts court • Re-incarceration – a sentence of any length to a state or county correctional facility in the state of Massachusetts for either a new offense or violation of release conditions
HAMPDEN STUDY (continued) • Data collected on a monthly basis and reported one year and three years post-release. • Data analysis revealed trends in offender characteristics and behavior that were useful to staff making security, classification and programming decisions. • Data also informed Hampden County how other agencies such a parole, probation and the courts affect the facilities.
1994 BUREAU OF JUSTICE STATISTICS STUDY • Repeated study done in 1983 reviewing releases from prisons in 15 states. • Population studied: sentenced offenders released time served or paroled in 1994 tracked for three years post-release. • Data elements: • Offender demographics • Offense type • Sentence length • Amount of time served prior to release • Criminal history data
1994 BUREAU OF JUSTICE STATISTICS STUDY (continued) Recidivism defined as: • Re-arrest • Re-conviction • Re-sentence to prison • Return to prison with or without a new sentence in any state (VOP)
1994 BUREAU OF JUSTICE STATISTICS STUDY (continued) • Comparisons were made to the previous study of prisoners released in 1983. • Highlights of the study include the following: • 67.5% of the prisoners were re-arrested for a new offense • 46.9% were re-convicted for a new crime • 25.4% were re-sentenced to prison • 51.8% were back in prison serving time for a new prison sentence due to a technical violation of their release8
NATIONAL RECIDIVISM DATA • It is estimated that approximately two-thirds of individuals released from prisons and jails in the United States recidivate within three years.12
JACKSONVILLE EXPERIENCE IN RECIDIVISM INTERVENTION • Many offenders in the criminal justice system are Habitual Misdemeanor Offenders (HMO) suffering from drug and alcohol problems and mental health issues.3 • HMOs cost tax payers much to house and feed them in jail repeatedly without developing skills needed to remain outside of the criminal justice system.3 • Offender’s behavior tends to worsen with time and without appropriate intervention and treatment.3
DOCR PROPOSED STUDY POPULATION • All sentenced offenders from the Montgomery County Detention Center, Montgomery County Correctional Facility, and Pre-Release and Reentry Services released time served or paroled between 1/1/2002 and 12/31/2002 to allow for a three year follow-up period. • Weekenders, transfers to other jurisdictions for warrants or detainers, federal, state and pre-trial inmates will not be included.
DATA ELEMENTS • Demographics • Prior Offenses • Instant Offense • Post-release supervision • Offenses post-release
DEFINITION OF RECIDIVISM • Re-arrest - any arrest occurring post-release • Re-conviction – any guilty finding in a case post-release • Re-incarceration – a sentence of any length to a state, county or local correctional facility for a new offense or violation of release conditions
QUESTIONS TO BE ANSWERED • Number of days to re-arrest, re-conviction and re-incarceration (survival analysis). • Do recidivists commit the same offenses? Less Severe offenses? More severe offenses? • Are offenders violating probation or parole (VOP) by a new crime or technical violation? • Does the length of the sentence in the original offense affect recidivism? • Does offender age, gender or original offense (offense from which released) have any affect on recidivism?
QUESTIONS TO BE ANSWERED (continued) • Do offenders who commit certain offenses (original offense) recidivate more quickly? • What is the recidivism rate one year post-release? • What is the recidivism rate three years post-release? • Is there a particular group of offenders that recycle through the jail 5 or more times per year (HMO)? • Is there a need to change our business practices to better facilitate a reduction in recidivism?
QUESTIONS TO BE ANSWERED (continued) • Have we captured all the data elements we need to include in our Correction and Rehabilitation Information Management System (CRIMS)? • Can we identify offenders with a high likelihood of recidivism in the beginning of their incarceration and prioritize them for treatment services designed to interrupt their pattern of re-offending?
WHAT WORKS TO REDUCE RECIDIVISM • Research indicates that programs based on a cognitive-behavioral approach focused on altering thoughts, emotions, and behaviors associated with drug use and criminal acts are affective in reducing recidivism.11 • Reentry programs reduce recidivism.6 • Educational programs, substance abuse and mental health treatment, and employment assistance lead to lower recidivism.6
DATA AVAILABILITY • At the present time DOCR does not have automated data on program participation, LSI-R scores and disciplinary information for all DOCR inmates.
CORRECTION AND REHABILITATION INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (CRIMS) • DOCR is currently in the process of purchasing a software package and developing the CRIMS database. • Once purchased and in place DOCR will ensure all operational data elements are included in the system. • CRIMS will allow the regular collection of offender data including program participation, education, employment, disciplinary problems and LSI-R scores.
CRIMS (continued) • DOCR will have the ability to examine LSI-R scores of recidivists to assist with classification and program placement decisions for future inmates. • DOCR will have the ability to assess the differences in recidivism rates of program participants versus non-participants. • In addition to a variety of other data elements, DOCR will have the ability to evaluate the affect of educational and employment programs as well as substance abuse and mental health treatment on recidivism rates.
CRIMS (continued) • DOCR will have the ability to evaluate the affect mental health problems have on recidivism. • DOCR will be able to identify the habitual misdemeanor offenders at intake and program them appropriately.
SAMPLE DATA ELEMENTS CURRENTLY COLLECTED BY PRRS MONTHLY • The following is a sample of aggregate data elements currently collected and available for analysis on a regular basis by PRRS staff. • The data is from the first six months of 2006.
PRRS SUCCESSFUL DISCHARGESby RELEASE TYPE 96% of PRRS releases are Time Served.
PRRS INTAKES BY RACE/ETHNICITY • The majority of the PRRS population is African-American followed by Caucasian and Hispanic.
PRRS INTAKES by AGE • The majority of men were between the ages of 18 and 25. • The majority of women were between the ages of 46 and 55. 18-25 46-55
PRRS INTAKES by RESIDENCE • 71% of PRRS intakes live in Montgomery County.
PRRS INTAKES by GENDER • National data indicates that almost nine out of every ten jail inmates were adult males.5 • PRRS gender data is very similar to national data.
PRRS INTAKES by EDUCATION • The majority of men coming to PRRS had at least a HS diploma or GED. • The majority of women had at least 10-12 years of education or a HS diploma. • 27% needed educational services.
PRRS INTAKES by OFFENSE • Drug/alcohol offenses were more common among both male and female residents. • Men were more likely to have committed a person or sex offense than women.
PRRS INTAKES by SENTENCE LENGTH • The most frequent sentence was 4-6 months. • State and Federal residents often have sentences over 18 months. MONTHS
REFERENCES 1. Aos, S., Phipps, P., Barnoski, R. and Lieb, R. (1999). The comparative costs and benefits of programs to reduce crimes: A review of national research findings for implications for Washington State. (Doc# 99-05-1202). Olympia, WA: Washington State Institute for Public Policy. 2. Robert Barnoski & Steve Aos, Washington’s Offender Accountability Act: An Analysis of the Department of Corrections Risk Assessment, Washington State Institute for Public Policy (December 2003). 3. Gordon Bass Jr., Justice and the Revolving Door: The Jacksonville Experience in Recidivism Intervention, Large Jail Network (LJN), US Department of Justice National Institute of Corrections (2005).
REFERENCES (continued) 4. Bureau of Justice Statistics Crime Characteristics (US Department of Justice – Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics). 5. Bureau of Justice Statistics Correctional Surveys (The National Probation Data Survey, National Prisoner Statistics, Survey of Jails, Census of Jail Inmates, and The National Parole Data Survey) as presented in Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997, and Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear, 2005. 6. Data Spotlight: Recidivism, Management and Training Institute (February, 2003). 7. Doris J. James & Lauren E. Glaze, Mental Health Problems of Prison and Jail Inmates, Bureau of Justice Statistics (September 2006, NCJ 213600).
REFERENCES (continued) 8. Patrick A. Langan & David J. Levin, Recidivism of Prisoners Released In 1994, Bureau of Justice Statistics (June 2002, NCJ 193427). 9. Edward J. Latessa, What Works and What Doesn’t in Reducing Recidivism: The Principles of affective Intervention, Center for Criminal Justice Research, Division of Criminal Justice, University of Cincinnati presentation. 10.Martha A. Lyman, Hampden County House of Correction Recidivism Rates One Year Post Release 2004 Releases.
REFERENCES (continued) 11.Programs that Help Inmates Stay out of Prison: Growing Public Expectations, Management & Training Corporation Institute, (November, 2003). 12.Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative - SVORI evaluation, NIJ.