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EMP, Yeah You Know Me!

EMP, Yeah You Know Me!. Adrian Crenshaw Naughty by Nuke! (With apologies to Naughty by Nature). About Adrian. Twitter: @ Irongeek_ADC. I run Irongeek.com I have an interest in InfoSec education I don’t know everything - I’m just a geek with time on my hands

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EMP, Yeah You Know Me!

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  1. EMP, Yeah You Know Me! Adrian CrenshawNaughty by Nuke!(With apologies to Naughty by Nature)

  2. About Adrian Twitter: @Irongeek_ADC • I run Irongeek.com • I have an interest in InfoSec education • I don’t know everything - I’m just a geek with time on my hands • I’m an (Ir)regular on the InfoSec Daily Podcast: http://isdpodcast.com • Sr. Information Security Engineer at a Fortune 1000 • Co-Founder of Derbyconhttp://www.derbycon.com/

  3. What is EMP? • EMP = Electromagnetic Pulse • A powerful burst of radio waves cause by quickly changing electromagnetic fields • Has the effect of inducing currents into conductors and can “burn” them up or cause interference • Early British term was “Radioflash”

  4. Why this subject? • I don’t consider myself a prepper or survivalist (but I did collect a lot of Paladin Press books as a kid) • I like the smell of fried electronics (as long as they ain’t mine) • Lots of scare monger videos, justified or not, but little with the science behind EMP • It fit the theme!

  5. EMP: Entertaining Misinformed People • Signal to Noise is high on this subject • Many people will speak authoritatively, but not know the actual fact • Tried searching for site:mil and site:gov • Limited practical testing seems to have been done • Radio Waves do weird things… • When/where was the testing done? • Audience • Some stuff is classified • Some stuff aims toward the non technical • I’m not an expert either, so take all this with a huge grain of salt

  6. Examples • ???

  7. Spark Gap? • Ever run a vacuum/electric motor while watching an analog TV? • Sparks cause a broad band of radio waves to propagate, which can cause interference.

  8. Inducing current • Changing magnetic fields cause current in a conductor • Current in a conductor cause a magnetic field - +

  9. Near-Field and Far-Fields • Distance? 1/(d^3) vs. 1/(d^2) Image from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Near_and_far_field

  10. Self Propagating EM Wave Image from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_radiation

  11. Bit Of History • Apparently EMP was expected by Enrico Fermi, and equipment during the Trinity test (July 16, 1945) was shielded in anticipation of it • Apparently some recording were lost due to “spurious pickup” • Greater interest came about afterStarfish Prime Hi Guys!!!

  12. Starfish Prime • High altitude test of a nuclear weapon on July 9, 1962 • 1.4 megaton W49 thermonuclear warhead detonated 250mi (400km)above a point about19 miles southwest of Johnston Island in thePacific Ocean • EMP effect was greater than anticipated

  13. Starfish Prime EMP Effects • Drove instruments off the scale, presumably as expectations of the effect was lower • Damaged electrical systems 898 miles away in Hawaii • 300 street lights blown • Telephone microwave link damaged • Set off burglar alarms • Further tests in the “Operation Fishbowl” series gave more data on EMP’s effects

  14. EMP: Multiple Pulse in Three Parts • E1 – Very short, powerful burst that induce high currents in conductors. • E2 – Comes shortly after E1. Somewhat akin to the EM effects of a lightning strike. Many systems may already be prepared, but precursor damage from E1 may soften them up. • E3 – Longer, slower pulse that can last many seconds caused by the Earth’s magnetic field being pushed out of the way. Can induce current in long conductors and cause damage to power systems.

  15. Volts per Meter • Volts per Meter – V/m – Voltage across a one Meter conductor as the magnetic field sweeps across it. • EMP: 100,000 V/m Ground Burst • Radar: 200 V/m • Radio Communications: 10 V/m • Metropolitan Noise: 0.1 V/m Ball park figures from http://www.lrc.fema.gov/downloads/attack_env_4.pdf

  16. Range from Ground Zero for Surface Burst • If you are too close, you are already having a bad day! Image source http://www.lrc.fema.gov/downloads/attack_env_4.pdf

  17. Burst location • Surface/Near Surface Burst – Ground level • EMP is an issue, but other effects may take precedence • Geography limits area • Air density limit range • High Altitude – above 30km • 20km to 40km is where we get the Compton effect • Can hit a larger area • Saturation at about 50,000V/m • 500km burst could cover continental United State • Air Burst - 100-1000m, maybe below 30km? • Not as interesting for EMP* * http://www.fas.org/nuke/intro/nuke/emp/c-2fig.pdfhttp://www.lrc.fema.gov/downloads/attack_env_4.pdf

  18. More Acronym (and Electron) Soup • SREMP =Source Region EMP (low/surface burst) • HEMP= High-altitude EMP • MHD-EMP =Magnetohydrodynamic EMPCaused by shifting of Earth’s magnetic field • SGEMP = System Generated EMPCaused by Gamma/X-Rays hitting the outside of a satellite/space craft • NNEP = Non-Nuclear EMP

  19. +Ground Burst Outward Radiating EMP Net Electron Current Ground absorbs some Gamma + . + . Current Return Path Through Ground

  20. Net Electron Current Caused By Atmospheric Density Gradient Leading To Weak Vertical Dipole Airburst Gamma Rays Cause “Compton Scattering”, Knocking Electrons Out Of Molecules In The Air, Causing A Charge Seperation

  21. Chain of events E1/E2: HEMP Gamma Rays caused by detonation Gamma Rays knock Electrons out of air molecules (Compton Effect) at about 20 to 40km altitudein a mostly down direction Electrons direction effect by Earth’s magnetic field, now we have EMP EMP EMP Gamma ray diffusion and other effects cause delayed E2 EMP

  22. Chain of Events E3 Earth’s magnetic field just sitting there, minding it’s own business Detonation happens “Fireball” affects magnetic permeability,causing changes in Earth’s magnetic field

  23. Spectrum • Lots of interference Image source http://www.lrc.fema.gov/downloads/attack_env_4.pdf

  24. Earth’s Magnetic Lines • Latitude and Altitude make a big difference Image from Wikipedia/Figure 2.143 from page 76 of the book, "The Effects of Nuclear Weapons" by Samuel Glasstone and Phillip J. Dolan. 1977 edition published by the United States Department of Defense. {{PD-USGov}} Used to illustrate the concept of magnetic conjugate regions

  25. EMP Production Factors • Altitude • Yield and Construction • Distance from detonation • Geography • Magnetic Field Strength

  26. Prompt Gamma Yield More Important Than Total Yield • 0.115–0.5% of nuke’s energy is Prompt Gamma Yield • Starfish Prime was 1.4MT, but 0.1% PGY, so 1.4Kt for EMP effect • 500Kt Nuke optimized for 0.5% PGY would give 2.5Kt for EMP effect • Pre-ionization in thermonuclear bombs may cause less EMP effects to take place than more primitive fission weapons Image from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_pulse

  27. EMP Horseshoe Effect Image from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_pulse

  28. Entry Points • Direct – in through the holes • Induced • Antennas • Satellite Dishes • Power Lines • Network Cables • Telephone Wire • Other Cables • Plumbing

  29. Damage Types • Functional Damage – Over load, hit break down voltage, heat up and fry! Blue smoke is gone, it’s dead Jim! • Operational Damage – Circuit upset for transient current. Circuit breaker blown, or circuit logic disturbed. Pulled from http://www.lrc.fema.gov/downloads/attack_env_4.pdf

  30. Super EMP Nuke Can you optimize a nuclear bomb to have more of an EMP effect? • Reduce ionization from heat • Make case and explosive gamma transparent • Produce as much gamma as quick as possible

  31. Non Nuclear EMP (NNEMP) • What about just the EMP, without the other nasty nuke effects? • Effect electrical systems, but not buildings/roads • “Force Multiplier” from loss of enemy communications • Less (immediate) deaths = less political ramifications?

  32. Marx Generator • Charge capacitors in parallel, discharge in series Marx Generator ATLAS-I/ The Sandia Trestle Images from http://en.wikipedia.org/

  33. Explosively Pumped Flux Compression Generator • EPFCG uses a magnetic field with conventional explosives (many configurations) • Below is a “Helical generator” Armature Coil High Explosive Capacitor + -

  34. High-Energy Radio Frequency weapons (HERF) • Ever put a CD in the Microwave? • Can fry/disrupt equipment • Can effect humans in negative ways • Some people make homemade versions from old Microwave oven’s magnetron, wave guide, and other parts Active Denial SystemImage from Wikipedia

  35. The Vircator • VIRtualCAthodeoscillaTOR Image from http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/cc/apjemp.html

  36. Geomagnetic Storm • Tied with “space weather” like sunspot and solar flares and Coronal mass ejection • Messes with Earth’s magnetic field • More akin to the effect of E3 • Largest recorded was September 1 – 2, 1859, really screwing with the telegraph system • March 1989 Geomagnetic Storm had its way with Hydro-Québec's power grid

  37. Type of Tech • Things can be unpredictable • Solid State, fall down go boom, let magic blue smoke out (maybe) • Thermionic technology (Vacuum Tubes) more resilient but not perfect. Also, try building a modern computer from them. There are also power concerns. • Fiber optic: No conduct mean no fry • Shorter conductors are better

  38. Fry Chart Image source http://www.lrc.fema.gov/downloads/attack_env_4.pdf

  39. Surge Protection • Metal Oxide Varistor(MOV) • Is it fast enough? • E1 peaks at ~5ns • Can signal propagate other ways? • Electromagnetic arresting devices? Fuse MOV MOV MOV EAD Image based on one from http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/cc/apjemp.html

  40. Power Sources I’m soooo in need of better test data • Tradition Fossil Fuel Generators • Hydro Electric • SCADA Systems • Transformers • Solar • Wind • Voltage regulation circuits? • Charging components?

  41. Shielding Metal Shell • Faraday Cage • Fiber Optic Cable Preferred • What about power lines in? • Water? • Any holes? • Propagation direction • Grounded? • For slow moving magnetic fields (<100kHz) look into Permalloy or Mu-metal Insulator X X Earth Ground

  42. Hypothetical computer room • Seal those holes! • Mesh of size to stop microwaves • Fiber optic in • Doubles as Tempest shield Image from http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/cc/apjemp.html

  43. Improvised Faraday Cage? • Microwave • File Cabinets • Trashcans • Ammo Boxes • Metal Mailbox • Foil Wrapped Containers? • Anti-Static Bag? • Mesh with holes less than 1/10 diameter of wavelength to be blocked (NSWAG)

  44. EMP Tips and Guidance • Unplug gear • Disconnect antennas • Have spares • Use voltage clipping devices • Avoid large conductor loops • Shielded conduit and cables • Bury lines (though I have heard mixed opinions)

  45. Resources • EMP Commission Report (April 2008)http://www.empcommission.org/reports.php • The Effects of Nuclear Weapons Chapter 11 (Compiled and edited by Samuel Glasstone and Philip J. Dolan)http://www.fourmilab.ch/etexts/www/effects/eonw_11.pdf • FEMA 128-Attack Environment Manual-Chapter 4 http://www.lrc.fema.gov/downloads/attack_env_4.pdf • Wikipedia EMP Article http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_pulse • Electromagnetic Pulse Threats in 2010 byColin R. Miller, Major, USAFhttp://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/cst/bugs_ch12.pdf • The Electromagnetic Bomb - a Weapon of Electrical Mass Destruction Carlo Kopphttp://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/cc/apjemp.html • The Early-Time (E1) High-Altitude • Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) and Its Impact on the U.S. Power Grid byEdward Savage, James Gilbert, and William Radaskyhttp://www.ornl.gov/sci/ees/etsd/pes/pubs/ferc_Meta-R-320.pdf • Future Science EMP Pagehttp://www.futurescience.com/emp.html

  46. Thanks • Conference organizers for having me • By buddies from Derbycon and the ISDPodcast • Open Icon Library for some of my imageshttp://openiconlibrary.sourceforge.net

  47. Events Derbycon???http://www.derbycon.com Others Photo Credits to KC (devauto) Derbycon Art Credits to DigiP http://www.louisvilleinfosec.comhttp://skydogcon.comhttp://hack3rcon.org http://outerz0ne.orghttp://phreaknic.infohttp://notacon.org

  48. Questions? 42 Twitter: @Irongeek_ADC

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