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German and Italian Unification

German and Italian Unification

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German and Italian Unification

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  1. German and Italian Unification Key Personalities: The King of Piedmont Victor Emanuel II and prime minister Count Camillio di Cavour King William I and Otto Eduard von Bismarck Emperor Francis Joseph and Count Beust and Hungarian Ferencz Deak

  2. Tools: • Machiavellian methods • Use of diplomacy and war • Plebiscites • Federal schemes • Personalities • Piecemeal incorporation:

  3. Italy:

  4. Unification of Italy 1859-1870 •

  5. Piedmont Lombardy – 1859, • Parma, Modena, Tuscany, Umbria – 1860, • Naples and Sicily – 1860, • Venice (1866), • Papal State and Rome (1870), • San Marino stays out.

  6. Germany:

  7. Unification of Germany 1862-1871 •

  8. Northern German Confederation 1867 • German Empire with the incorporation of southern states 1871.

  9. Economic and Social aspects: Germany: • economically much more developed, (zollverien, common currency, banking system, expanding coal and steel production) • socially very strong common culture and language, • strong civil society linking professional classes across the German Bund, • common national cause including liberals united behind Prussian leadership

  10. In contrast Italy: • culturally and geographically very disperse, • economically not very integrated, • Piedmont modernizing while the South very underdeveloped, • no strong bond across the different Italian states, • financial difficulties

  11. Wars: Italy: • Pact of Plombieres 1858 between Napoleon II and Cavour • intermarriage to link the two states between King Emanuel’s daughter princess Clotilde (15 years old) and Jerome cousin of Napoleon III, • France and Piedmont would go to war against Austria, • Piedmont would get Lombardy and Venetia to form Kingdom of Upper Italy linked to Duchies of Parma, Madena and Papal legations, • In turn Piedmont would cede Nice and Savoy to France

  12. Piedmont/France vs Austria War and the Treaty of Villafranca,July 1859: • Only Lombardy given up and an Italian confederacy under the Pope advocated, • Piedmontese ignored the treaty and maintained occupation of central Italian states, • The next year with British and French approval the states of Parma, Madena, Tuscany, Papal legations thru plebiscites would join the Kingdom of Sardinia and Piedmont, • France receives Nice and Savoy, • Giuseppe Garibaldi and his irregulars conquer Sicily and Naples, • Makes it on to Rome when Piedmontese forces stop him, • He turns his gains over to King Emanuel in September 1860, • Victor Emanuel of Savoy crowned as King of Italy in March 1861.

  13. Italy vs Austria War of 1866: • Battles inconclusive but Italy under Prussian pressure receives or “redeems” territories under Austrian occupation thru plebiscites including Venice via France

  14. Franco-Prussian war of 1870: • French troops left Rome and Italy invades and completes unification • The Pope would not accept this new state of affairs until the Lateran Treaty of 1929

  15. Germany: Austria/Prussia vs. Denmark 1864: • Joint army claiming to act on behalf of the Bund defeated the Danes, • Treaty of Vienna of October 1864, • Denmark renounced claims over the two duchies. • Convention of Gastein in August 1865 signed, • Prussia got Schleswig and Austria got Holstein.

  16. Prussia vs Austria 1866: • Bismarck in June 1866 proposes to abolish the Bundestag and the German Bund instead hold a German Assembly to draft a new constitution, • Austria objects, • War breaks out at Sadowa and Austria defeated, • Treaty of Prague signed, • Austria to give Venice to France and then France to Italy, • loss of Austrian role in German affairs, • Bismarck leads a new confederal constitution for Germany north of the Main composed of 22 states led by Prussia alongside an association of southern states (Baden, Bavaria and Wurttemberg), • Prussia annexed Schleswig and Holstein, Danish populated part in the north would be subjected to a plebiscite that would not take place until 1919.

  17. Prussia vs. France 1870: • Bismarck began to plot his next major move against France, • Employed very unscrupulous Machiavellian tactics to trap Napoleon III, • Embarrasses Napoleon III over annexation of Wallonia but first supporting then ensuring thru British mediation independence of Belgium and Luxembourg re-confirmed, • Bismarck in July 1867 incorporated Hannover, Nassau and Frankfurt having defeated them on battle ground, • Severe blows to Napoleon’s prestige, • shock came over succession to Spanish throne in July 1870, • Bismarck edits Prussian King’s telegram over encounter with French ambassador, • French hysteria provoked ensures withdrawal of candidate, • France declares war, • Prussian army commanded by Moltke defeats the French captures Napoleon at the Battle of Sedan, • Third Republic formed and continues war but eventually Paris falls, • Bismarck uses the occasion to unify rest of Germany as the three southern states induced to join the German Confederation.

  18. Treaty of Frankfurt signed in May 1871: • Confirmed the frontier between the French Third Republic and the German Empire - involving the annexation of most of Alsace and the Lorraine departement of Moselle, • Gave residents of the annexed Alsace-Lorraine region until October 1, 1872 to decide between keeping their French nationality and emigrating, or to remain in the region and become German citizens, • Set a framework for the withdrawal of German troops from certain areas, • Regulated the payment of France's war indemnity of five billion francs (due within three years) • Recognized the acceptance of William I of Prussia to be German Emperor, • Required military occupation in parts of France until the staggering indemnity was paid (to the surprise of Germany, the French paid the indemnity quickly)

  19. Consequences Compared to Metternich’s system and balance of power: • Nationalism and populism rises, • Media, print media, impact on populism massive especially in the Franco-Prussian war and subsequently colonial expansion, • Flexible alliances disappear and major realignments, • General geo-strategic situation, • French-German rivalry grows, • Balkans become a powder-keg, • British aloofness, • Five-power dynamism, desire not to be left in a minority accompanied by Bismarck’s concern not to be sandwiched between two enemies. • Outcomes • secrecy, insecurity and fear, • new patterns of alignments, • British-German naval rivalry, • Weakness of Concert of Europe, • The Eastern Question and weakening of the Ottoman Empire, • Sarajevo incident