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Bahan Kajian MK.STELA.smno.fpubi2014

Bahan Kajian MK.STELA.smno.fpubi2014

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Bahan Kajian MK.STELA.smno.fpubi2014

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  1. CROP EQUIVALENT RATING CER BahanKajianMK.STELA.smno.fpub.mei2014

  2. CER = CROP EQUIVALENT RATING Suatudaerahbiasnayamempunyaiberagamkondisitanah, mulaidaritanah-tanah prairie hitamygsuburhinggatanahgambutdantanah-tanahhutan yang tipispadabatuanindukkeras. Variasikualitastanahdalamsuatubidanglahansangatmenentukanpertumbuhandnahasiltanaman. Kondisiiklimdisuatudaerahbiasanyamenunjukkanvariasihujandansuhuygjugaberpengaruhpadaproduktivitastanamanpertanian. Sumber: SOILS FACT SHEET No. 34-1980. JAMES L. ANDERSON and LOWELL D. HANSON. Agricultural Extension Service. Univ. of Minnesota.

  3. CER = CROP EQUIVALENT RATING Information has been compiled on the nature, suitability, and productivity of soils for crops, pasture, and timber. CER = Crop Equivalent Rating , menjadiinstrumenuntukmembandingkanproduktivitasrelatifseri-seritanahdan “mengelola” lahan. Hasilanalisisinisangatpentinguntukmenentukanapakahsebidanglahandigarapsendiri, disewakanataudijual-belikan. Penilaianinijugamenjadicarauntukmenentukantingkatpengelolaanlahanuntukmencapaihasil yang diinginkan. Sumber: SOILS FACT SHEET No. 34-1980. JAMES L. ANDERSON and LOWELL D. HANSON. Agricultural Extension Service. Univ. of Minnesota.

  4. CER = CROP EQUIVALENT RATING Perubahanteknologipertanian, sepertipupukbaru, pestisidabaru, metodepengolahantanah, dankultivarunggultelahmeningkatkanhasiltanaman. Hal iniberartibahwarataanjangkapanjangbukancaraterbaikuntukestimasiproduktivitastanah. To be valid, yield estimates need to be reevaluated every 5 years. To constantly reevaluate yield estimates is confusing and time consuming. A desirable system is one that reflects the relative net economic return that might be expected from soils. This figure should be based on a specific management level that remains constant. Sumber: SOILS FACT SHEET No. 34-1980. JAMES L. ANDERSON and LOWELL D. HANSON. Agricultural Extension Service. Univ. of Minnesota.

  5. CER = CROP EQUIVALENT RATING PENGEMBANGAN CER Untukanalisis CER dapatdigunakantingkatpengelolaanlahanpertanian yang moderatseperti: Drainage padatanah-tanahygdiperlukan Strip cropping and terraces on soils where needed Penggunaankapurpertanianpadatanah-tanahmasam Aplikasipupukberdasarkanhasilujitanah Use of herbicides for weed control and insecticides as needed Use of adapted varieties and populations related to soil moisture and fertility supply Prosedurpanenuntukmeminimumkankehilanganhasil Jadwalwaktusemuaoperasiproduksitanaman. Sumber: SOILS FACT SHEET No. 34-1980. JAMES L. ANDERSON and LOWELL D. HANSON. Agricultural Extension Service. Univ. of Minnesota.

  6. CER = CROP EQUIVALENT RATING CER's reflect the net economic return per acre of soil when managed for cultivated crops, permanent pasture or forest, whichever provides the highest net return. CER menyediakaninformasitentang ranking relatifdengannilai 1 (lowest) hingga 100 (highest). Sumber: SOILS FACT SHEET No. 34-1980. JAMES L. ANDERSON and LOWELL D. HANSON. Agricultural Extension Service. Univ. of Minnesota.

  7. Empattahapanuntukmendapatkan CER: Produktivitas-brutoserietanahdievaluasipadatingkatpengelolaanaktual yang ada. Prevalent crop combinations on a particular soil were derived from the Conservation Needs Inventory (1971). Where one crop clearly dominated, that crop largely determined the gross productivity. For most soils several crops were considered in calculating the income estimates. Gross production estimates for a specific cropping sequence multiplied by the market value of crops based on a 5 year average provides a gross value for the rotation. Biayaproduksidikurangkanpadahasilproduksibruto. The soil which had the highest net total per acre was given a CER of 100. Each of the other soils is compared to this value to determine the relative ranking. Sumber: SOILS FACT SHEET No. 34-1980. JAMES L. ANDERSON and LOWELL D. HANSON. Agricultural Extension Service. Univ. of Minnesota.

  8. CER = CROP EQUIVALENT RATING Contohpenentuan CER untuktanah-tanahlempung-liatdaridaerah Nicollet. Table 1. Nicollet: B Slope, 1 erosion Sumber: SOILS FACT SHEET No. 34-1980. JAMES L. ANDERSON and LOWELL D. HANSON. Agricultural Extension Service. Univ. of Minnesota.

  9. CER = CROP EQUIVALENT RATING Assuming that the Nicollet clay loam has the highest net return per acre value the CER is 100. Other soils are then compared to the Nicollet to determine relative ranking. For example, another soil might have a net return per acre of $89.04. CER dihitungsebagaipersentasekeuntunganneto per acre tanahlempung-liat Nicollet. Perhitungannya: Nilai CER untuktanahinisebesar 78. Sumber: SOILS FACT SHEET No. 34-1980. JAMES L. ANDERSON and LOWELL D. HANSON. Agricultural Extension Service. Univ. of Minnesota.

  10. CER = CROP EQUIVALENT RATING Since the procedure outlined provided CER values based on row crop production and row crop production is not recommended on slopes over 12 percent, soils occurring on these slopes need to be evaluated on the basis of permanent pasture and/or timber production. Selainitu, suatu method dibuatuntukmenyesuaikan CER terhadapperbedaankondisiiklim. Sumber: SOILS FACT SHEET No. 34-1980. JAMES L. ANDERSON and LOWELL D. HANSON. Agricultural Extension Service. Univ. of Minnesota.

  11. CER = CROP EQUIVALENT RATING Climatic adjustments are made by adding 5 percent to the CER value for each additional inch of rainfall over the average for the county where the series was originally evaluated. Sebaliknya, untuksetiapinchipenurunancurahhujan, makanilai CER dikurangi 5 %. Sumber: SOILS FACT SHEET No. 34-1980. JAMES L. ANDERSON and LOWELL D. HANSON. Agricultural Extension Service. Univ. of Minnesota.

  12. CER = CROP EQUIVALENT RATING Kalausuatutanahseharusnyadi-drainage, tetapipadakenyataannyatidakdi-drainage, maka CER dikurangisebesar 20 %. Where soils are used for woodland production, yet row crops are a feasible alternative, the CER can be adjusted downward. Estimasi yang masuk-akaladalahmembagi CER menjadidua (separuhnya). Sumber: SOILS FACT SHEET No. 34-1980. JAMES L. ANDERSON and LOWELL D. HANSON. Agricultural Extension Service. Univ. of Minnesota.

  13. CER = CROP EQUIVALENT RATING APLIKASI CER CER dptdigunakanuntukevaluasiproduktivitasrelatifberbagaibidanglahan. Decisions on whether to purchase or rent certain parcels can be based on the CER. Intensity of land management can be based on the soils' potential productivity. For example, suppose there are two parcels and a decision is to be made which parcel to rent or purchase. The two parcels are located according to their legal description from the Public Land Survey (figure 1). Produktivitasrelatifduabidanglahandapatditentukanberdasarkan CER nyadan lima tahapanini. Sumber: SOILS FACT SHEET No. 34-1980. JAMES L. ANDERSON and LOWELL D. HANSON. Agricultural Extension Service. Univ. of Minnesota.

  14. CER = CROP EQUIVALENT RATING Produktivitasduabidanglahandapatditentukanberdasarkanpada CER dan lima tahapanini: Mendapatkanpetatanahdanlegendanya. Menentukankategoripenggunaantanah. Mendapatkan CER untuksetiapsatuanpeta (from MR132 mentioned in last paragraph of this publication). Mengukurdanmencatatluasansetiapsatuanpetauntuksetiapbidanglahan. Menghitungrataan CER untuksetiapbidanglahanseluas 40 ha. Sumber: SOILS FACT SHEET No. 34-1980. JAMES L. ANDERSON and LOWELL D. HANSON. Agricultural Extension Service. Univ. of Minnesota.

  15. Figure 1. Surveilahanpublikseluas 40 ha danmenyajikaninformasisurveitanah. Sumber: SOILS FACT SHEET No. 34-1980. JAMES L. ANDERSON and LOWELL D. HANSON. Agricultural Extension Service. Univ. of Minnesota.

  16. CER = CROP EQUIVALENT RATING Petatanahdapatmemberikanindikasiumumtentangproduktivitastanah (figure 1). Dari informasihasilsurveitanahdnapetatanahdapatdiestimasirataanhasiltanaman. By using CER's and measuring acreages, however, an indication of the relative net economic return on the parcels is determined (figure 2). Sumber: SOILS FACT SHEET No. 34-1980. JAMES L. ANDERSON and LOWELL D. HANSON. Agricultural Extension Service. Univ. of Minnesota.

  17. Figure 2. Komparasi data hasiljagungdariLaporanSurvei Tanah dengan data CER. Sumber: SOILS FACT SHEET No. 34-1980. JAMES L. ANDERSON and LOWELL D. HANSON. Agricultural Extension Service. Univ. of Minnesota.

  18. CER = CROP EQUIVALENT RATING Ternyatabidanglahanseluas 40 acre (Parcel B) dilokasi SE mempunyaiproduktivitaslebihbaik. Walaupunperbedaaninisnagatjelas , sehinggakeputusandapatdiambiltanpa data CER, namunseringkalikeputusansepertiinitidakbenar. Olehkarenaitu data CER sangatbergunauntukmenyatakanperbedaanproduktivitaslahan. If this procedure is expanded to compare CER values with selling price, cash rent, and appraised values, a basis for land assessment is obtained. Sumber: SOILS FACT SHEET No. 34-1980. JAMES L. ANDERSON and LOWELL D. HANSON. Agricultural Extension Service. Univ. of Minnesota.

  19. CER = CROP EQUIVALENT RATING Tahapanberikutini, setelahperhitungan rata-rata nilai CER diperlukanuntukmendapatkanhasilevaluasi. Obtain data on selling price, earning value, cash rent figure when available, and/or appraised value in representative soil areas. Determine the relationship of CER's and the dollar values for the representative tracts. Prepare a schedule of adjustments. Beberapanegarabagiandi USA menggunakan CER sebagailandasanuntukevaluasilahan. Sumber: SOILS FACT SHEET No. 34-1980. JAMES L. ANDERSON and LOWELL D. HANSON. Agricultural Extension Service. Univ. of Minnesota.

  20. PEMUPUKAN DAN PRODUKTIVITAS TANAH-TANAMAN Foto.smno.tomat.mulyoagung.agust2012

  21. CER and FERTTILIZER APLICATION

  22. CER and FERTTILIZER APLICATION Faktor-faktor yang dapatmenjadisebabmenurunnyaefisiensipupuk

  23. RESPON KULTIVAR GANDUM THD PUPUK NITROGEN

  24. EFEK PUPUK N PADA HASIL PADI

  25. OPTIMASI DOSIS PUPUK Setiappetaniinginmendapatkankeuntunganmaksimumdaritanamannya, sambilmengurnagibiayapupuk. Bagaimanacaraterbaikuntukmencapaihalini ? Hasiltanamantergantungpadabanyakfaktor, sepertisifat-sifattanah, irrigation, genetik, iklim, praktekbudidaya, pengendalianhama-penyakit-gulmadanpemupukan. Research shows that fertilizers account for 30 to 50% of the yield. This significant contribution explains why many farmers believe that if they apply more fertilizers they would get higher yields. Akantetapiternyatatidakdmeikianhalnya. Sumber: http://www.smart-fertilizer.com/fertilizer-application-rates

  26. APLIKASI PUPUK What is the relation between fertilizer application and crop yield?  The relation between fertilizer application and potential yield is schematically described in the following curve: Sumber: http://www.smart-fertilizer.com/fertilizer-application-rates

  27. FAKTOR PEMBATAS HASIL-TANAMAN MenurutHukum Minimum Leibig, hasiltanamanditentukanolehfaktor yang paling membatasidilapangan. Hal inimenunjukkanbahwakalauhanyasatuhara yang defisien, hasiltanamanakandibatasi, meskipunsemuaharalainnyacukuptersedia. Sumber: http://www.smart-fertilizer.com/fertilizer-application-rates

  28. CER = CROP EQUIVALENT RATING Produksibiomassatebusangattinggi , Rendemensangatditentukanoleh N/K ratio dalamtanah Foto.smno.tebu.mulyoagung.agust2012

  29. DOSIS OPTIMUM PUPUK SECARA EKONOMI The Right Fertilizer Application Rates For Optimal Economic Yield A yield goal is the yield you hope to harvest. In order to be profitable, it is very important that you set a yield goal that is realistic and achievable and that you use the right tools and practices to achieve that goal.  Hal ygpentingadalahberapabesartingkathasil yang optimal secaraekonomis. Sumber: http://www.smart-fertilizer.com/fertilizer-application-rates

  30. KONSEP KESUBURAN TANAMAN Tigakonseppengelolaanharatanamanadalah : PendekatanKoreksiDefisiensi,PendekatanPemeliharaan, danPoendekatanPanen Hara.Pendekataninimemperkenalkankonsepbahwa: Hanyasebagian (fraksi) dari total haradalamtanah yang dapatdiukurdenganuji-tanah. It is impossible to measure how much of a nutrient will be readily available to plants. This means that a soil test value is an index of the soil’s fertility status, not a quantitative measure of the total amount of nutrient in the soil or its availability. Early researchers recognized that the level of available nutrients measured may range from low to high in a given field. Early recommendations were intended to be applied on a field basis. Sumber: http://passel.unl.edu/pages/informationmodule.php?idinformationmodule=1130447047&topicorder=2&maxto=6

  31. PENDEKATAN KOREKSI DEFISIENSI KonsepKoreksiDefisiensimenyatakanbahwasuatuunsurharaharusdiaplikasikanhanyakalauadaekspektasiyglogistentangrespontanaman. Ideiniadakaitannyadengankonsepfaktor-pembatas (Bray, 1944, 1945). Pendekataniniberdasarkanhasilanalisiskorelasidankalibrasi. This approach requires the most intensive research because the soil test needs to be responsive to changes in soil levels and correlated with crop response. Duapertanyaanpenting yang harusdijawab: 1)  Apakahtanamanakanresponterhadappemupukan;2)  Berapabanyakpupuk yang diperlukan. Sumber: http://passel.unl.edu/pages/informationmodule.php?idinformationmodule=1130447047&topicorder=2&maxto=6

  32. CROP FERTILITY CONCEPTS Keuntungandarimetode KD iniialahbahwapupuk yang diaplikasikanhanyapupukygdapatmeningkatkanhasiltanaman , danpupukinidiaplikasikanpadadosis optimum. Hal inilazimdisebut “fertilizing the crop,” karenatujuannyaadalahmencapairespontanaman. Di University of Nebraska metodeinidianggapekonomisdanramahlingkungan. The approach is illustrated graphically in Figure 1. The deficiency correction approach to fertilizing the crop only recommends fertilizer to the point of economic optimum yield. (Fertilizer is recommended until soil test reaches Point A onFigure 1). Pengalamanmenunjukkanbahwarekomendasipupukuntukmengoreksidefisiensihara, biasanyajugaakanmeningkatkanketersediaanharadalamtanah. Sumber: http://passel.unl.edu/pages/informationmodule.php?idinformationmodule=1130447047&topicorder=2&maxto=6

  33. CROP FERTILITY CONCEPTS Titik yang disebut “economic maximum yield” adalahhasiltanamandimanapetanimendapatkankeuntungan paling besardaripupuk (Fig. 1). Kalaupetanimenggunakanpupukkurangdaridosisini, iaakanmenghematuanguntukbiayapupuk, tetapikehilanganuangakibatrendahnyahasilmasihlebihbesardibandingkandenganpenghematanuangdaribiayapupuk. If a farmer applies more fertilizer than needed to reach the economic yield, he may increase his yield somewhat, but his fertilizer costs will increase more than the increase in crop value. Peningkatanhasil x Hargajagung > Dosispupuk x Hargapupuk. Sumber: http://passel.unl.edu/pages/informationmodule.php?idinformationmodule=1130447047&topicorder=2&maxto=6

  34. KONSEP KESUBURAN TANAMAN Figure 1.  Responhasiltanamandipengaruhiolehhasilujitanahdanpendekatanrekomendasiujitanah  (Hergert, 1997) Sumber: http://passel.unl.edu/pages/informationmodule.php?idinformationmodule=1130447047&topicorder=2&maxto=6

  35. PENDEKATAN PEMELIHARAAN “PendekatanPemeliharaan” menetapkansasarantingkatuji-tanah (Point B on Figure 1), danmerekomendasikanpupukuntuk “membangun” tanahhinggakandungan-haratertentu yang dianggap “ideal” This approach uses soil test levels, as does the deficiency correction approach, to determine when to fertilize. Soil tests for this approach still have to be correlated, as with the deficiency correction approach. The difference is that emphasis is placed on maintaining the soil fertility level at or above the point of the economic maximum yield. This has been called “fertilizing the soil,” since emphasis is placed on achieving a specific nutrient level in the soil. “Pendekatanpemeliharaan “ menggunakantingkatuji-tanah yang lebihtinggidaripadatingkat-kritis yang digunakanpadaPendekatanKoreksiDefisiensi. Sumber: http://passel.unl.edu/pages/informationmodule.php?idinformationmodule=1130447047&topicorder=2&maxto=6

  36. CROP FERTILITY CONCEPTS Contohpenerapankonsep “IdePemeliharaan” adalah “KonsepKeseimbanganHraa”. Konsepinimenyatakanbahwauntukpertumbuhan optimum suatutanamanmakaharusada “best ratio” kationbasadankejenuhanbasayngterbaikdalamtanahtersebut. Karenakonsep-keseimbanganinitidakhanyamelibatkan K, Ca dan Mg, makapendekatan ratio untukmenyusunrekomendasipupukmikrodanbelerangbiasanyatidak valid. This has brought about criticism of laboratories using the balance concept. Others have extended this balance concept beyond soil fertility concerns, and claim that the proper soil cation balance produces disease and insect resistance. Sumber: http://passel.unl.edu/pages/informationmodule.php?idinformationmodule=1130447047&topicorder=2&maxto=6

  37. Fertilizer is Expensive....How Much Less Should I Use? Biasanyarespontganamanterhadapharamengikuti “law of diminishing returns”. The greatest increase in yield is from the first pound of nutrient added, and each additional pound of that nutrient gives a smaller yield increase. Eventually, a maximum yield is reached, and adding more fertilizer beyond this point doesn’t produce any yield increase, and may actually cause yield to decline. Sumber:. http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/field/news/croptalk/2006/ct_0306a3.htm

  38. Comparison of corn N recommendations based on yield goal or N response data with observed yield response to applied N on a Piano silt loam from 1986 to 1988. Keuntunganekonomisdaripupuk-N ygdihitungpada ratio hargapupuk N/hargajagungmencerminkankisarannilai , halinimenunjukkanbahwabiasanyatidakmenguntungkankalaumeningkatkanataumenurunkandosis N-rekomendasiberdasarkan data respontanaman. Application of 30 lb N/acre more or less than the recommended rate usually did not increase economic return irrespective of the N/corn price ratio. Sumber: Corn Nitrogen Recommendations Based on Yield Response Data. M. B. Vanotti and L. G. Bundy. JPA. 2013. doi: 10.2134/jpa1994.0249Vol. 7 No. 2, p. 249-256.

  39. A New Nitrogen Soil Test That Works Di Illinois, rekomendasipupuk N untuktanamanjagungdiestimasiberdasarkantujuanhasilygrealistis, dikalikandneganangka 1.2 untukmenghitungdosis N pound per acre, denganmempertimbangkan N darisumberlainnya, sepertipupukkandangatau legume. A yield-based recommendation may have merit on a long-term basis, but under- or overfertilization is apt to occur in any given growing season, since soil N availability is not taken into account. Insufficient application of N can have serious economic consequences for the farmer, whereas excessive fertilization increases the risk of environmental pollution. Hubunganantarahasiluji N-tanahdenganresponpupuk N untuk topsoil (0-30 cm) dari 25 lokasi yang respon N. Sumber: http://agronomyday.cropsci.illinois.edu/2001/tours/soil-test/.

  40. PRODUKTIVITAS TANAH The capacity of the soil, in its normal environment, to produce a specified plant or sequence of plants under a specified system of management. Produktivitas-tanah : Kapasitastanahuntukmenghasilkantanamandandiekspresikandalambentuk “hasil-tanaman”.

  41. KUALITAS TANAH & INDIKATOR PRODUKTIVITAS Sumber:. http://gpiatlantic.org/pdf/agriculture/soilqp.pdf

  42. CER = CROP EQUIVALENT RATING Produksibiomassaubijalarsangattinggi biomasaumbisangatditentukanoleh shoot-root rationya Foto.smno.ubijalar.mulyoagung.agust2012

  43. CER = CROP EQUIVALENT RATING KESIMPULAN CER menyediakan ranking relatifproduktivitastanahygbergunauntukmembandingkanbidang-bidanglahanuntukdijual-belikan, sewa-menyewa, pengelolaanlahanataupenilaianlahan. With the current accelerated soil survey program the CER values will be refined and improved so that this method of parcel evaluation will become increasingly useful. Sumber: SOILS FACT SHEET No. 34-1980. JAMES L. ANDERSON and LOWELL D. HANSON. Agricultural Extension Service. Univ. of Minnesota.