New Horizon English Book 1 Unit 8
Ⅰ. Background Information 1. Richard Wagner (1813-1883), the greatest composer of German opera, made a major addition to the nature of opera through his writings about and the creation of music drama. Music drama combines singing, orchestra, verse, story, drama and spectacle. Wagner's works include the "The Ring of the Nibelung" (1853-1874), a set of four operas based on historical German stories. For an introduction to Wagner as well as other resources on the Internet, please visit http://www.ffaire.com/wagner/index.html or http://www.yahoo.com/entertainment/music/.
http://www.yahoo.com/entertainment/music/.2. The Rhinegold, the first of the four operas in the "Ring" cycle, exemplifies Wagner's theory of music drama in its purest form. 3. La Spezia is an industrial port and Italy's chief naval station in northwest Italy. Wagner visited here in 1853 when he left his exile in Switzerland to which he had escaped during World War II. For more information such as maps and photos, etc. of La Spezia, please visit http://www.itwg.com/ct_00067.asp (or http://www.itwg.com in general). 4. Henri Poincare (1854-1912), a great French mathematics and theoretical science professor at the Sorbonne (University of Paris), had a highly original influence on the development of pure and applied mathematics. He also worked on functions that changed celestial mechanics, helped pioneer algebraic topology and co-discovered the special theory of relativity. For further introduction to his works, please visit http://www-chaos.umd.edu/misc/poincare.html.
5. Descartes, Rene (1596-1650), a famous French philosopher, mathematician and scientist, was one of the most influential thinkers in history. He is considered the founder of both modern philosophy and analytic geometry. During his life, established ideas were being challenged, so he tried to develop a way to reach the truth. He based his theory that the world is made up of mind and matter on a concept that came to him in a dream. For further information, check out the webpage at http://www.xrefer.com/entry/551791. 6. cogito ergo sum, is Latin for "I think; therefore, I exist," a key point in Descartes' philosophy. He claimed that the only thing anyone can be certain of is that s/he thinks and, therefore, s/he exists. The "I" is the mind which can exist without beingextended so that it can in principle survive the death of the body. You can check out the webpage at http://www.xrefer.com/entry/551611 for further information.
ⅡLead-in Activity Discuss in group the following topics 1. Where do you think good ideas come from especially when you are faced with a difficult issue? 2. Tell a story about the birth of great ideas, for example, the birth of great invention, etc.
While-reading Activity Ⅰwords and phrases:
satisfactory a. good enough to be pleasing, or for a purpose, rule, standard, etc. 令人满意的Sales are up 20% from last year: that's very satisfactory. 销售额比去年增加了20%，非常令人满意。This method of heating is not satisfactory for large buildings.这一取暖办法用于大型建筑物并不令人满意。 Flash vi. 1. (of an idea) to come suddenly 突然产生（想法、灵感）The idea flashed into his mind. 他突然想到了这个主意。Then it flashed upon me that she was his wife. 我突然想到她是他的妻子。2move very fast 飞驰，掠过The days seem to flash by. 光阴似箭。
Particularly ad. especially 特别是More local employment will be created, particularly in service industries. 地方将提供更多的就业机会，尤其是服务行业。I cannot leave him, particularly now. 我不能离开他，尤其是现在。 glow vi. 1.produce light and heat without fire发光，发热Colored lights glowed on the celebration night. 节日之夜灯火辉煌。2. show strong or warm color 呈现鲜艳的颜色Maple leaves glowed red in the sunlight.枫叶在阳光下闪耀着红光。The sunset glowed with color. 日落时天空中呈现出耀眼的色彩。 creation n. creating创造Does the government argue against the creation of an separate Scottish government? 政府是不是反对成立一个独立的苏格兰政府？The creation of new playgrounds will benefit the local children. 建立新的运动场地将会使当地儿童受益。
mystery n. something that is not fully understood谜Who had taken the book? It was a mystery. 谁把书拿走了？这是个谜。 Why he went there is a mystery to me.他为什么上那儿去对我来说是个谜。 reasonable a. showing common sense; fair合理的，适当的He gave me a reasonable explanation. 他给了我一个合理的解释。I had a reasonable solution to the problem. 我想到了一个解决这个问题的合理办法。 psychologist n.a person trained and educated to perform psychological research, testing, and treatment心理学家You may turn to the psychologist for help.你可以到那位心理学家那儿寻求帮助。
process n.a connected set of actions or events that produce continuation or slow change过程，进程The firm is now in the process of moving the main equipment to a new place.公司目前正在把主要设备迁到新地址去。Producing a dictionary is a slow process. 编撰一本词典是一个缓慢的过程。 individual n.a human being regarded as unique 个体，个人She always treated her clients as individuals. 她总是把每个客户视为不同的个体。The rights of the individual are sometimes the most important rights in a free society. 在自由社会里有时个人的权利是最为重要的权利。
contrast n. (with, between) unlikeness or difference shown by comparing objects or people对照, (对照中的)差异This appears big in contrast with that. 同那个相比，这个显得很大。The contrast between the two ideas is sharp. 这两种想法的差异很明显。 mathematician n. a person gifted or learned in mathematics数学家Hua Luogeng is a great mathematician. 华罗庚是一位伟大的数学家。 combination n. something that results from two or more things, (esp. chemicals) being combined结合, 合并;【化】化合物His nature is a combination of strength and kindness. 他的性格柔中寓刚。 After the general election, a combination of parties formed the new government.大选后,各政党联合组成了新政府。
Language Point 1 No satisfactory way exists to explain how to form a good idea. (Para. 1) Meaning: There is not a way good enough to explain how to find or develop a good idea. Language Point 2 No satisfactory way exists... (Para. 1) satisfactory: a. good enough to be pleasing, or for a purpose, rule, standard, etc.This heater is satisfactory; it does give enough heat. 这取暖器效果令人满意，释放热量充足。The design of the kitchen is satisfactory: the refrigerator is not next to the stove and there is enough space. 厨房的设计令人满意，冰箱不靠近炉灶，而且空间很大。
personality n. 1.a person who is well-known to the public名人television personalities电视名星2. the quality or condition of being a person人的品质或条件Though their personalities were different, they got along as friends. 虽然他们性格迥异，但却能友好相处。 intensify v.make or become stronger增强，加强The press has intensified its examination of the political official's background. 新闻界已加强了对那个政客背景的调查。The search intensified as dusk approached.随着黄昏将至，搜寻加强了。 1.[C] a person of exceptional natural ability天才"One is not born a genius; one becomes a genius." (Simone de Beauvoir) "天才不是天生的，而是后天造就的"。(西蒙娜·德·比弗)He was a genius in both science and art. 他在科学和艺术两方面都是天才。2. [U] strong natural ability天赋There's genius in the way this was painted. 这幅画能画成这样真是天才。
recognize vt. 1. realize or be aware that sth. exists or is true注意到，认识到Many fail to recognize that all these things are in danger of being refused. 许多人没有看到这一切正处于失去的危险之中。No one recognizes the difficulty of the mission. 没有人注意到这项使命的艰巨性。2. identify as previously known; know sth. or sb.认出I recognized Peter although I hadn't seen him for 10 years. 虽然我有10年没看到彼得了，但我认出了他。 orchestral a. of or by a large group of musicians who play various musical instruments together管弦乐的, 管弦乐队的orchestral instruments管弦乐器an orchestral production管弦乐队的演出
religion n.belief in the existence of a god or gods or a force of greater power outside of one's self 宗教There are many religions in the world. 世界上有许多种宗教。Political affairs and religion are subjects of daily conversation. 政治和宗教是人们日常谈论的话题。 philosophy n. the search for knowledge and understanding of the nature and meaning of all the natural world including human life哲学economic philosophy经济哲学the philosophy of Kant康德的哲学（体系）
invention n. 1.the action of creating something new 发明Need is the mother of invention. （谚）需要是发明之母。"His 6,000 inventions included the electric light bulb, the phonograph, and the mimeograph machine." "他的六千项发明包括电灯泡、留声机(唱机)和油印机。" 2. something created发明物The phonograph is an invention made by Thomas Edison. 留声机是托马斯·爱迪生发明的。 logic n. the science of thinking about or explaining the reasons for sth. 逻辑；逻辑学Your friend doesn't seem to be controlled by logic. 你那位朋友好像没有逻辑性。He argues with learning and logic. 他的辩论既展示了他的学识，又合乎逻辑。
truly ad. 1. really; completely 真正地a truly willing act 真正慷慨的行为This is a truly beautiful picture. 这实在是一幅很美的画。2. honest; exactly as described真诚地；真心地We are truly sorry this is not convenient. 这是很不方便，我们确实很抱歉。 highly ad.very; to an unusually great degree非常highly interesting很有趣a highly scientific approach 高度科学性的方法 dramatic a.
dramatic a. 1. sudden, exciting, not expected引人注目的China has achieved dramatic economic developments. 中国在经济上取得了令人瞩目的发展。dramatic colors引人注目的色彩2. about drama or acting戏剧的; 演戏的 compose v. create or produce (a written or musical piece) 创作（文学或音乐）He teaches music and also composes. 他教音乐， 并且作曲。At the age of six he was already composing at the piano. 他六岁时就用钢琴作曲。composing a poem /a speech 写一首诗/一篇演讲稿
occupy vt. 1. engage, employ, or busy (oneself) 把注意力集中于 ......I am fully occupied with my daily work. 我每天都忙于日常的工作。He was occupied in writing letters. 他忙着写信。 2. fill up (time or space) 占用（时间或空间）a lecture that occupied three hours长达三个小时的讲座Reading occupies most of my free time. 阅读占去了我大部分的闲暇时间。The enemy occupied the town.敌人占据了这个城镇。 fling vt. 1. throw with force 猛扔，抛Don't fling your clothes about on the chair; hang them up. 别把衣服乱扔在椅子上,把它们挂起来。The sun flings bright rays on the fields.（比喻）灿烂的阳光撒在田野上。
couch n. a long comfortable seat; a sofa 沙发 Sit beside me on the couch.上我这儿来，坐到沙发上。Mary was not well so she was lying on the couch in the living room. 玛丽感到身体不适，所以她躺在起居室的沙发上。 miracle n. an act or event that cannot be explained by known laws of nature 奇迹a miracle of architecture建筑上的奇迹The car ran over the man, but by a miracle, he was not hurt.汽车从那个人身上压过去, 但他却没有受伤, 真是奇迹。 mighty a. having or showing great power, skill, strength, or force强大的，巨大的He gave it a mighty push and it opened. 他用力推了一下，它便开了。He struck the rock a mighty blow with a hammer.他用铁锤使劲地猛击了一下那块岩石。
Language Point 3 ...to explain how to form a good idea. (Para. 1) form a good idea: begin to have an idea and develop itWe can say "to form an idea, an opinion, a judgment, a plan or even a personality".He found it hard to form an original opinion. 他觉得要有独到的见解并非易事。I know them both well enough to form my own judgment. 我对他们都非常了解，足可以自己独立判断。A plan began to form in his mind. 一个计划开始在他脑子里形成。One of the most important tasks for a school is to help and promote forming a child's personality. 学校的一个重要任务就是要帮助和促进儿童个性的形成。
Language Point 4 You think about a problem until you're tired, forget it, maybe sleep on it, and then flash! (Para. 1) Meaning: You have been thinking about a problem until you are tired, forget it and leave it undecided and then suddenly some idea comes to your mind. Language Point 5 ...forget it, maybe sleep on it...(Para. 1) sleep on it: leave sth. undecided or unattended until later time He will sleep on the matter and tell us the decision later. 他对此事要考虑一下，再把他的决定告诉我们。
Language Point 6 ...and then flash! (Para. 1) flash: vi. 1. (of an idea) to come suddenlyThese lines from Shakespeare just flashed into my mind. 我突然记起了莎士比亚的这几行诗句。2. appear or pass suddenlyThe car flashed by so quickly that I could not see the car number. 汽车飞驰而过，我根本看不到车牌号。The policeman flashed his I. D. card at me, but I could not read his name. 警察只是向我亮了一下他的证件，可我根本看不清他的名字。
Language Point 7 When you aren't thinking about it, suddenly the answer arrives as a gift from the gods. (Para. 1) Meaning: When you are no longer thinking of the problem, then the answer to it comes to your mind unexpectedly as if something falls upon you from heavenly spirits.a gift from the gods: an unearned, or unexpected, benefit that is greatly valued People say that all the years after 70 are gifts from the gods. 人们说70岁之后的寿数是上帝恩赐的。
Language Point 8 Of course, all ideas don't occur like that but so many do, particularly the most important ones. (Para. 2) Meaning: Not all ideas, of course, come as gifts as many of them do. Especially, some big ideas do not come to your mind automatically. occur: vi. come to mindThe idea never occurred to me. 我从未想到过这个主意。It suddenly occurred to him that this was an act he could never do. 他突然想到这种事情他根本就不应该做。particularly: ad. especiallyHe is particularly busy for this month. 这个月他特别忙。He is particularly careful with his car; I do not think we should borrow it. 他对他的汽车爱惜有加，我看我们还是不借为好。
Language Point 9 They burst into the mind, glowing with the heat of creation. (Para. 2) Meaning : These ideas come to the mind suddenly and show clearly they are good creative ideas.glow: v. produce light and heat without fire,Some natural matter can glow in the dark.有些自然物质能在黑暗中闪光。glow with: show redness or heat with feelings, etc.My father face glowed with satisfaction when he saw my college grades. 父亲看到我的学校成绩时，脸上露出满意的神情。
Language Point 10 How they do it is a mystery but they must come from somewhere. (Para. 2) Meaning: How these ideas came to your mind is a mystery; no one can understand. But they must have come from somewhere, an unknown source. mystery: something that is not fully understood Many people have tried to solve the problem but without success; it is a mystery that the girl found the solution to it in just a minute. 许多人设法解决这个问题，但都没有成功; 这个女孩仅在几分钟内就把它解决了，真是件怪事。
Language Point 11 This is reasonable, for psychologists use this term to describe mental processes which are unknown to the individual. (Para. 2) Meaning: The explanation holds water as psychologists use this special term to describe the patterns going on in our mind, which are not known by human beings. process: n. a connected set of actions or events that produce continuation or slow changeIn this example, the conscious mind at the moment of creation knew nothing of the actual processes by which the solution was found. (Para. 5) 在这个事例中，意识在创造的时候对发现答案的实际过程一无所知。Scientists have now discovered more about the processes of sleep and dreaming. 科学家已经发现了更多的有关睡眠和做梦的过程。Psychologists study the processes by which human personalities are formed, develop and change. 心理学家研究人类性格的形成、发展和改变的过程。
Language Point 12 Creative thought depends on what was unknown becoming known. (Para. 2) Meaning : Creative thought comes if one can change what was unknown into something that is knowndepend on: happen according to; count on The success of the factory depends on the workers. 工厂的成功取决于工人的工作。Depending on how much he sells, his earnings will increase. 他收入的增加取决于他能卖出多少。
Language Point 13 ...it is easiest to examine it in the great creative personalities, many of whom experienced it in an intensified form and have written it down in their life stories and letters. (Para. 3) Meaning: Many of the highly creative persons had experiences of this sort and felt its effects strongly, as you can find in their life stories and letters, so their case is easiest to study and understand. Language Point 14 ...it is easiest to examine it ...(Para. 3) examine: study or determineexamine a tissue sample under a microscope 在显微镜下研究组织细胞的样品examine the structure of a novel 分析一部小说的结构examine one's own reasons 剖析自己的动机
Language Point 15 ... the great creative personalities ...(Para. 3) personality: n. 1. a person who is well-known to the public Please note that this is a countable noun in this sense.He is a powerful personality. 他是一位有权势的人物。A number of local personalities were present. 出席的有许多当地政要。2. the quality or condition of being a personI like Jack because he has a friendly personality. 我喜欢杰克是因为他性情随和。 Language Point 16 ...in an intensified form ...(Para. 3) intensify: v. make or become stronger Efforts to reach the injured man have been intensified because of a sudden turning for the worse in the weather. 由于天气突然变得更恶劣，援救伤员的工作加紧了步伐。The enemy's breakthrough intensified, as there was no hope for their reinforcement. 由于增援无望，敌人加强了突围。
Post-reading Activity Ⅰkey to Exercise: (pp.178-183)
. Answer the following questions. (p.178) 1.Good ideas come from the unconscious. Psychologists use the term to describe mental processes which are unknown to the individual. 2.No. all of us have experienced the sudden arrival of a new idea, but it is easiest to examine it in the great creative personalities. 3.He was sick and could not sleep for noise without and fever within. 4.No. he had been occupied with the idea of the ‘Ring’ fro several years, and for many months had been struggling to make a start with the actual composing. 5.The rush and roar of water had become music and the orchestral opening to the ‘Rhinegold’ had at last taken its shape within him. 6.The unconscious mind at the moment of creation knew nothing of the atual process by which the solution was found. A new concept may suddenly explode into consciousness. 7.In the example of Henri Poincare, we see the conscious mind actually watching the unconscious at work. 8.Dream plays an important role. Descartes was able to make the discovery with the help of his dream.
. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. (p.178) 1. Scientists have recently turned their attention to natural sources of energy: the sun, the sea, the wind and hot springs. 2. If present directions continue, the world in the years ahead will be more crowded, more polluted and less stable ecologically（生态上）than the world we live in now.3. The crowd surged out from the gate.4. It's not reasonable to expect a small child to understand such a difficult question.5. The novel Tom Sawyer exemplifies 19th-century life in the United States.6. She was unable to express her intense fear of the witch (巫婆) toy in the box.7. When he got upstairs very tired, John flung himself on a couch.8. I can't say I share your enthusiasm for the idea.
Replace the underlined words or expressions in the following sentences with text words or expressions that best keep the original meaning. 1. Their present has been in the form of a cheque for $100.taken the shape2. The freezing weather is the cause of the breaks in the concrete.responsible for3. A large majority of elderly Americans count on government old age income.depend on4. Are your opinions a good example of those of other students? representative of 5. She guessed that secret influences were having an effect.at work6. After many hours' talk, the group came to a decision.arrived at7. Make a written record of my phone number in your diary before you forget it.Write down8. The old lady was engaged in making clothes for her neighbors' children occupied with
In each of the following items, you are given two simple sentences. Combine the two simple sentences to make one complex sentence that contains an attributive clause. 1.It is easiest to examine the sudden arrival of a new idea in the great creative personalities, many of whom experienced it in an intensified form.2.The Gaels' offspring are the modern Scots and Irish, some of whom still speak the Gaelic language.3.George explained that this was the official dress for taking examinations, many of which were held in June.4.At last the miracle happened, for which his unconscious mind had been seeking for so long.5.The conscious mind at the moment of creation knew nothing of the actual processes by which the solution was found.
Complete the following sentences after the given model, with the help of the words given in brackets. 1. The more books a man reads, ... (knowledge, have) The more books a man reads, the more knowledge he will have.2. The more he thought about it, ... (the less, like) The more he thought about it, the less he liked it.3. The smaller the house is, ... (the less, pay) The smaller the house is, the less you have to pay for it.4. The more dangerous it is, ...(excited, feel) The more dangerous it is, the more excited he feels. 5. The more you talk in English, ...(progress, make) The more you talk in English, the more progress you will make.
Translate the following sentences into English. 1. 她对那可怜的病孩充满了同情。 She was filled with pity for the poor diseased baby.2. （谚）欲寻珍珠就要潜入水中。 He who would search for jewels must dive below.3. 我原本打算昨天晚上去看电影，但却下雨了。 I intended to go to see a film last night, but it rained. 4. 许许多多人投诉这家餐馆服务质量差劲。 There was a flood of complaints about the poor service at the restaurant.5. 医学检查证实她身体状况良好。 Medical tests established that she was in good health.
Translate the following into Chinese. All of us have experienced this sudden arrival of a new idea, but it is easiest to examine it in the great creative personalities, many of whom experienced it in an intensified form and have written it down in their life stories and letters. All truly creative activities depend in some degree on these signals from the unconscious, and the more highly insightful the person, the sharper and more dramatic the signals become.我们都有过灵机一动突然有了这样一个新想法的经历，而这在那些有创造性的天才人物身上却是最显而易见的。他们中的许多人对这种经历有着强烈的感受，并在回忆录和信函中将其记录了下来。一切真正创造性的活动似乎在某种程度上都依赖于潜意识中的这些信号；一个人的洞察力越强，这些信号就越鲜明、越富有戏剧性。
Choose the best words to complete the meaning in each of the sentences below based on Passage A in this unit.Creative thinking depends on what was unknown becoming clear. Unconscious processes unknown to us are the source of the instinctive thinking that is responsible for new organized concepts. All of us have experienced the sudden explosion into consciousness of a new concept when we weren’t thinking about it. Elsewhere we can find examples of invention among famous personalities in every field. For the philosopher Descartes, for example, a dream determined his potential life path and provided a central concept about existence. The conscious mind of the mathematical genius Poincare actually watched his unconscious at work. For Wagner, by contrast, his conscious mind at the moment of creation knew nothing of the actual processes by which the sound of water became an orchestral score. All of these examples of creative thinking depend in some degree on signals from the unconscious. The more highly insightful the person, the sharper and more dramatic the signals become.
Now look at the following chart. The left side is the analysis of Paragraph 4 and you are required to fill out the right side, the matching part for Paragraph 5. The first one has been done for you. The result:Here, we see the conscious mind observing the new combinations being formed in the unconscious, while the Wagner story shows the sudden explosion of a new concept into consciousness.
Now write a short paragraph of contrast with one of the subjects below. As usual, one of the subjects has a more detailed outline if you want to follow it.When I started to learn English in my junior middle school, I had a kind and patient teacher. She was always encouraging all of the students. Because of this positive method, I eagerly answered all the questions I could, never worrying much about making mistakes. I was at the top of my class for two years. However, my learning experience in senior middle school was different from before. My new teacher quickly punished those who gave incorrect answers. Whenever we answered incorrectly, she would shout at us, "No! No! No!" As a result I lost my desire and confidence and did not make any progress in learning.