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Workshop on XML-Based Library Applications

Workshop on XML-Based Library Applications

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Workshop on XML-Based Library Applications

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  1. Workshop on XML-Based Library Applications 1. What is XML? Hong Kong University of Science & Technology Library

  2. What is XML? (1) • XML is eXtensible Markup Language • Like HTML, it contains tags "<...>" for describing elements. Unlike HTML, XML by itself does not define any specific tags, but only describes how to define your own tags to use to mark up documents • Developed by the W3C(World Wide Web Consortium) • To learn more: W3C’s XML site http://www.w3.org/xmland the XMLFAQ @http://www.uce.ie/xmlfaq Hong Kong University of Science & Technology Library

  3. What is XML? (2) • How is it used? • Marking up data • Exchanging data between systems/applications • Separating content from presentation • A Meta-Language standard (language that defines languages) • Some languages: PICS, EAD, Dublin Core, MARC Hong Kong University of Science & Technology Library

  4. What is XML? (3) • Example 1 - a bookstore?: <?xml version="1.0"?> <bookcoll> <book> <title>The Zen of Gardening</title> <author>Randy Mullis</author> <price unit="USD">39.99</price> </book> <book> <title>Kitchen Decoration</title> <author>Fleeta Wilkinson</author> <price unit=”HKD">92.00</price> </book> </bookcoll> Hong Kong University of Science & Technology Library

  5. What is XML? (4) • Example 2 - personal inventory?: <?xml version="1.0"?> <homeinventory> <book> <name>The Zen of Gardening</name> <writer>Randy Mullis</writer> <cost currency="USD">39.99</cost> </book> <book> <name>Kitchen Decoration</name> <writer>Fleeta Wilkinson</writer> <cost currency=”HKD">92.00</cost> </book> </homeinventory> Hong Kong University of Science & Technology Library

  6. What is XML? (5) • Relationship with SGML • A subset to make SGML usable on the Web • Relationship with HTML/XHTML • Extensible, form/content separation possible • XHTML is an XML form of HTML Hong Kong University of Science & Technology Library

  7. Why Use XML? • Widely accepted and adopted standard • Independent of vendor, platform & applications • Many essential and emerging standards are based on XML • Multi-Script capable (UTF-8 compliant) • Web capable • Plain-text source files • Has become the basic infrastructure in digital libraries and the information profession Hong Kong University of Science & Technology Library

  8. Anatomy of XML (1) • Elements and Attributes <price unit="USD"> • All elements are case sensitive <author> vs. <AUTHOR> vs. <Author> • All elements must open and close <price unit="USD">39.99</price> • All attribute values must be quoted <price unit="USD">39.99</price> Hong Kong University of Science & Technology Library

  9. Anatomy of XML (2) • Nesting <book> <title>Kitchen Decoration</title> <author>Fleeta Wilkinson</author> <price unit="HKD">92.00</price> </book> Hong Kong University of Science & Technology Library

  10. Anatomy of XML (3) • Hierarchical <?xml version="1.0"?> <bookcoll> <book> <title>The Zen of Gardening</title> <author>Randy Mullis</author> <price unit="USD">39.99</price> </book> <book> <title>Kitchen Decoration</title> <author>Fleeta Wilkinson</author> <price unit="USD">12.95</price> </book> </bookcoll> Hong Kong University of Science & Technology Library

  11. Anatomy of XML (4) • Namespaces • A collection of names, identified by a URI reference, which are used in XML documents as element types and attribute names. xmlns:dc=http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/ • DOM - Document Object Model • Exposes the contents of an XML document. The W3C's DOM defines what any DOM (e.g. Microsoft's) should expose as properties, methods, and events. • Example: Internet Explorer’s ability to display XML Hong Kong University of Science & Technology Library

  12. Anatomy of XML (5) • DTD - Document Type Definition • Defines the permitted elements, attributes and the hierarchy among them • http://library.ust.hk/xmlworkshop/xml1/bookstore.dtd • “Well-formed” - XML that is properly tagged • “Valid” - properly tagged and conforms to a DTD • XML can be well-formed and still not valid. Hong Kong University of Science & Technology Library

  13. Anatomy of XML (6) • XML Schema • Adds data types, such as number, date, time, etc. and permits user-defined data types. • Written in XML • Example: • http://library.ust.hk/xmlworkshop/xml1/bookstore-schema.html Hong Kong University of Science & Technology Library

  14. Anatomy of XML (7) • XSL - eXtensible Style Sheet Language • Specifies presentation of a class of XML files by using XSLT to describe how an instance of the class is transformed - e.g. into HTML • Uses XPOINTER, XPATH, and XSLT • XPATH • for addressing parts of an XML document • XPOINTER • pointing to part of an external or remote XML file • XSLT • for transforming XML files into other XML files Hong Kong University of Science & Technology Library

  15. Anatomy of XML (8) • XQUERY - XML Query Language • for querying XML Fragments/Documents • Can express queries across many kinds of data, whether physically stored in XML or viewed as XML via middleware (in text files, object repositories, relational databases, etc.) Hong Kong University of Science & Technology Library

  16. Why is XML important for Library Applications? • Most library metadata is hierarchical in nature, not relational • XML is particularly well-suited for marking up full-text data • Many emerging XML-based standards are driven by the library and information professions, e.g. Dublin Core, EAD Hong Kong University of Science & Technology Library

  17. XML/Library References (1) • Books • The ABCs of XML : the librarian's guide to the eXtensible markup language / by Norman Desmarais • [The Appendices of this book mention HKUST's early (1998) proposal/discussion of marking up MARC in XML.] • XML in libraries / edited by Roy Tennant • Putting XML to work in the library / Dick R. Miller and Kevin S. Clarke Hong Kong University of Science & Technology Library

  18. XML/Library References (2) • Online Resources • Getting Started with XML by Eric Morgan http://www.infomotions.com/musings/getting-started/ • How Does XML Help Libraries? http://www.infotoday.com/cilmag/sep02/Banerjee.htm • Practical XML & XSLT by Roy Tenant http://escholarship.cdlib.org/rtennant/presentations/2003il/xml • XML Cover Pages http://xml.coverpages.org/xml.html • XML4LIB Discussion List http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/XML4Lib/ • XML in 10 Points http://www.w3.org/XML/1999/XML-in-10-points Hong Kong University of Science & Technology Library

  19. Key Library Players & Projects • Medlane’s MarcXML project http://xmlmarc.stanford.edu/ • LC (U.S. Library of Congress) http://www.loc.gov/standards/marcxml/ • OCLC http://www.oclc.org/research/projects/ • AusLit http://www.auslit.edu.au/ • Local projects • Open University of HK Library - eText Center http://www.lib.ouhk.edu.hk/etext/frame_2.html • HKUST - XML Global Name Access Control Repository http://library.ust.hk/info/nac/ • And many many others… http://dir.yahoo.com/Reference/Libraries/Digital_Libraries/ Hong Kong University of Science & Technology Library